Pharmacology

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Pharmacology

BASIC PRINCIPLES

Introduction


=> Introduction - Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
=> The History of Pharmacologyogy
=> Pharmacology & Genetics
=> Pharmacology and the Pharmaceutical Industry
=> The Nature of Drugs
=> Drug-Body Interactions
=> Pharmacodynamic Principles
=> Pharmacokinetic Principles
=> Drug Groups

Drug Receptors Pharmacodynamics


=> Drug Receptors & Pharmacodynamics
=> Macromolecular Nature of Drug Receptors
=> Relation Between Drug Concentration & Response
=> Signaling Mechanisms & Drug Action
=> Intracellular Receptors for Lipid-Soluble Agents
=> Ligand-Regulated Transmembrane Enzymes Including Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
=> Cytokine Receptors
=> Ligand- and Voltage-Gated Channels
=> G Proteins & Second Messengers
=> Receptor Regulation
=> Well-Established Second Messengers
=> Interplay among Signaling Mechanisms
=> Phosphorylation: A Common Theme
=> Receptor Classes & Drug Development
=> Relation Between Drug Dose & Clinical Response
=> Dose & Response in Patients
=> Variation in Drug Responsiveness
=> Clinical Selectivity: Beneficial versus Toxic Effects of Drugs

Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics Rational Dosing the Time Course of Drug Action


=> Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamics: Rational Dosing & the Time Course of Drug Action
=> Pharmacokinetics
=> Volume of Distribution - Pharmacokinetics
=> Clearance - Pharmacokinetics
=> Half-Life - Pharmacokinetics
=> Drug Accumulation - Pharmacokinetics
=> Bioavailability - Pharmacokinetics
=> The Time Course of Drug Effect
=> The Target Concentration Approach to Designing a Rational Dosage Regimen
=> Target Concentration Intervention: Application of Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamics to Dose Individualization
=> Interpretation of Drug Concentration Measurements

Drug Biotransformation


=> Drug Biotransformation
=> Why is Drug Biotransformation Necessary?
=> The Role of Biotransformation In Drug Disposition
=> Where Do Drug Biotransformations Occur?
=> Microsomal Mixed Function Oxidase System & Phase I Reactions
=> Human Liver P450 Enzymes
=> Phase II Reactions
=> Metabolism of Drugs to Toxic Products
=> Clinical Relevance of Drug Metabolism

Development Regulation of Drugs


=> Development & Regulation of Drugs
=> The Pharmaceutical Industry
=> Drug Discovery
=> Preclinical Safety & Toxicity Testing
=> Evaluation in Humans
=> Confounding Factors in Clinical Trials
=> The Food & Drug Administration - Evaluation in Humans
=> Clinical Trials: The IND & NDA - Evaluation in Humans
=> Conflicts of Interest, Adverse Drug Reactions - Evaluation in Humans
=> Orphan Drugs & Treatment of Rare Diseases - Evaluation in Humans

Introduction to Autonomic Pharmacology


=> Introduction to Autonomic Pharmacology
=> Anatomy of the Autonomic Nervous System
=> Neurotransmitter Chemistry of the Autonomic Nervous System
=> Autonomic Receptors
=> Nonadrenergic, Noncholinergic (NANC) Neurons
=> Functional Organization of Autonomic Activity
=> Pharmacologic Modification of Autonomic Function

Cholinoceptor Activating Cholinesterase Inhibiting Drugs


=> Cholinoceptor-Activating & Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Drugs
=> Spectrum of Action of Cholinomimetic Drugs
=> Mode of Action of Cholinomimetic Drugs
=> Basic Pharmacology of the Direct Acting Cholinoceptor Stimulants
=> Basic Pharmacology of the Indirect Acting Cholinomimetics
=> Clinical Pharmacology of the Cholinomimetics

Cholinoceptor Blocking Drugs


=> Cholinoceptor Blocking Drugs
=> Basic Pharmacology of the Muscarinic Receptor Blocking Drugs
=> Clinical Pharmacology of the Muscarinic Receptor Blocking Drugs
=> Basic & Clinical Pharmacology of the Ganglion Blocking Drugs

Adrenoceptor Agonists Sympathomimetic Drugs


=> Adrenoceptor Agonists & Sympathomimetic Drugs
=> Molecular Pharmacology Underlying the Actions of Sympathomimetic Drugs
=> Medicinal Chemistry of Sympathomimetic Drugs
=> Cardiovascular System - Organ System Effects of Sympathomimetic Drugs
=> Noncardiac Effects of Sympathomimetics - Organ System Effects of Sympathomimetic Drugs
=> Endogenous Catecholamines
=> Direct-Acting Sympathomimetics
=> Mixed-Acting Sympathomimetics
=> Indirect-Acting Sympathomimetics
=> Therapeutic Uses of Sympathomimetic Drugs

Adrenoceptor Antagonist Drugs


=> Adrenoceptor Antagonist Drugs
=> Basic Pharmacology of the Alpha Receptor Antagonist Drugs
=> Specific Agents
=> Other Alpha-Adrenoceptor Antagonists
=> Clinical Pharmacology of the Alpha Receptor Blocking Drugs
=> Basic Pharmacology of the Beta Receptor Antagonist Drugs
=> Pharmacokinetic Properties of the Beta-Receptor Antagonists
=> Pharmacodynamics of the Beta-Receptor Antagonist Drugs
=> Specific Agents
=> Clinical Pharmacology of the Beta Receptor Blocking Drugs
=> Choice of a Beta-Adrenoceptor Antagonist Drug
=> Clinical Toxicity Of The Beta-Receptor Antagonist Drugs

Antihypertensive Agents


=> Antihypertensive Agents
=> Hypertension & Regulation of Blood Pressure
=> Basic Pharmacology of Antihypertensive Agents
=> Drugs that Alter Sodium & Water Balance
=> Drugs That Alter Sympathetic Nervous System Function
=> Centrally Acting Sympathoplegic Drugs
=> Methyldopa
=> Clonidine
=> Ganglion-Blocking Agents
=> Adrenergic Neuron-Blocking Agents
=> Beta-Adrenoceptor-Blocking Agents
=> Prazosin & Other Alpha1 Blockers
=> Vasodilators
=> Hydralazine
=> Minoxidil
=> Sodium Nitroprusside
=> Diazoxide
=> Fenoldopam
=> Calcium Channel Blockers
=> Inhibitors of Angiotensin
=> Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
=> Angiotensin Receptor-Blocking Agents
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Antihypertensive Agents
=> Outpatient Therapy of Hypertension
=> Management of Hypertensive Emergencies

Vasodilators the Treatment of Angina Pectoris


=> Vasodilators & the Treatment of Angina Pectoris
=> Pathophysiology of Angina
=> Basic Pharmacology of Drugs Used to Treat Angina
=> Nitrates & Nitrites
=> Drugs Used in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction
=> Calcium Channel-Blocking Drugs
=> Beta-Blocking Drugs
=> Newer Antianginal Drugs
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Drugs Used to Treat Angina
=> Treatment of Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) & Intermittent Claudication

Drugs Used in Heart Failure


=> Drugs Used in Heart Failure
=> Control of Normal Cardiac Contractility
=> Pathophysiology of Heart Failure
=> Pathophysiology of Cardiac Performance
=> Other Positive Inotropic Drugs Used in Heart Failure
=> Bipyridines
=> Beta-Adrenoceptor Agonists
=> Basic Pharmacology of Drugs Used in Heart Failure
=> Drugs Without Positive Inotropic Effects Used in Heart Failure
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Drugs Used in Heart Failure
=> Management of Chronic Heart Failure
=> Management of Diastolic Heart Failure
=> Management of Acute Heart Failure

Agents Used in Cardiac Arrhythmias


=> Agents Used in Cardiac Arrhythmias
=> Electrophysiology of Normal Cardiac Rhythm
=> Mechanisms of Arrhythmias
=> Basic Pharmacology of the Antiarrhythmic Agents
=> Specific Antiarrhythmic Agents
=> Procainamide (Subgroup 1A)
=> Quinidine (SubGroup 1A)
=> Disopyramide (SubGroup 1A)
=> Lidocaine (SubGroup 1B)
=> Mexiletine (SubGroup 1B)
=> Flecainide (Subgroup 1C)
=> Propafenone (Subgroup 1C)
=> Moricizine (Subgroup 1C)
=> Beta-Adrenoceptor–Blocking Drugs (Class 2)
=> Drugs That Prolong Effective Refractory Period by Prolonging the Action Potential (Class 3)
=> Amiodarone
=> Dronedarone
=> Vernakalant
=> Sotalol
=> Dofetilide
=> Ibutilide
=> Calcium Channel-Blocking Drugs (Class 4)
=> Verapamil
=> Adenosine - Antiarrhythmic Agents
=> Magnesium - Antiarrhythmic Agents
=> Potassium - Antiarrhythmic Agents
=> Principles in the Clinical Use of Antiarrhythmic Agents

Diuretic Agents


=> Diuretic Agents
=> Proximal Tubule - Renal Tubule Transport Mechanisms
=> Loop of Henle - Renal Tubule Transport Mechanisms
=> Distal Convoluted Tubule - Renal Tubule Transport Mechanisms
=> Collecting Tubule System - Renal Tubule Transport Mechanisms
=> Renal Autacoids - Renal Tubule Transport Mechanisms
=> Adenosine
=> Prostaglandins
=> Peptides
=> Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
=> Adenosine A1-Receptor Antagonists
=> Loop Diuretics
=> Thiazides
=> Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
=> Agents That Alter Water Excretion (Aquaretics)
=> Diuretic Combinations
=> Edematous States
=> Nonedematous States

Histamine Serotonin the Ergot Alkaloids


=> Histamine
=> Basic Pharmacology of Histamine
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Histamine
=> Histamine Antagonists
=> Histamine Receptor Antagonists
=> Basic Pharmacology of H1-Receptor Antagonists
=> Clinical Pharmacology of H1-Receptor Antagonists
=> H2-Receptor Antagonists
=> H3- & H4-Receptor Antagonists
=> Serotonin 5 Hydroxytryptamine
=> Basic Pharmacology of Serotonin
=> Melatonin Pharmacology
=> Serotonin Syndrome and Similar Syndromes
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Serotonin
=> Serotonin Antagonists
=> Serotonin-Receptor Antagonists
=> The Ergot Alkaloids
=> Basic Pharmacology of Ergot Alkaloids
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Ergot Alkaloids

Vasoactive Peptides


=> Vasoactive Peptides
=> Biosynthesis of Angiotensin
=> Actions of Angiotensin II
=> Angiotensin Receptors & Mechanism of Action
=> Biosynthesis of Kinins
=> Inhibition of the Renin-Angiotensin System
=> Formation of Kinins in Plasma & Tissues
=> Physiologic & Pathologic Effects of Kinins
=> Kinin Receptors & Mechanisms of Action
=> Metabolism of Kinins
=> Drugs Affecting the Kallikrein-Kinin System
=> Vasopressin
=> Vasopressin Receptors & Antagonists
=> Natriuretic Peptides
=> Vasopeptidase Inhibitors
=> Endothelins
=> Inhibitors of Endothelin Synthesis & Action
=> Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
=> Substance P
=> Neurotensin
=> Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide
=> Adrenomedullin
=> Neuropeptide Y
=> Urotensin

The EicosanoidsProstaglandins Thromboxanes Leukotrienes Related Compounds


=> Arachidonic Acid & Other Polyunsaturated Precursors
=> Synthesis of Eicosanoids
=> Receptor Mechanisms - Mechanisms & Effects of Eicosanoids
=> Effects of Prostaglandins & Thromboxanes
=> Effects of Lipoxygenase & Cytochrome P450-Derived Metabolites
=> Inhibition of Eicosanoid Synthesis
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Eicosanoids
=> Dietary Manipulation of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

Nitric Oxide


=> Discovery of Endogenously Generated Nitric Oxide
=> Nitric Oxide Synthesis, Signaling Mechanisms, & Inactivation
=> Pharmacologic Manipulation of Nitric Oxide
=> Vascular Effects - Nitric Oxide in Disease
=> Septic Shock - Nitric Oxide in Disease
=> Infection & Inflammation - Nitric Oxide in Disease
=> The Central Nervous System - Nitric Oxide in Disease
=> The Peripheral Nervous System - Nitric Oxide in Disease
=> Respiratory Disorders - Nitric Oxide in Disease

Drugs Used in Asthma


=> Drugs Used in Asthma
=> Pathogenesis of Asthma
=> Sympathomimetic Agents - Basic Pharmacology of Agents Used in the Treatment of Asthma
=> Methylxanthine Drugs - Basic Pharmacology of Agents Used in the Treatment of Asthma
=> Antimuscarinic Agents - Basic Pharmacology of Agents Used in the Treatment of Asthma
=> Corticosteroids - Basic Pharmacology of Agents Used in the Treatment of Asthma
=> Leukotriene Pathway Inhibitors - Basic Pharmacology of Agents Used in the Treatment of Asthma
=> Anti-IgE Monoclonal Antibodies - Drugs in the Treatment of Asthma
=> Cromolyn & Nedocromil
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Drugs Used In the Treatment of Asthma
=> Bronchodilators
=> Muscarinic Antagonists
=> Corticosteroids
=> Leukotriene Antagonists; Cromolyn & Nedocromil
=> Anti-Ige Monoclonal Antibody
=> Management of Acute Asthma
=> Prospects for Prevention of Asthma
=> Treatment Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

DRUGS THAT ACT IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

Introduction to the Pharmacology of Central Nervous System CNS Drugs


=> Introduction to the Pharmacology of Central Nervous System (CNS) Drugs
=> Methods for the Study of Central Nervous System (CNS) Pharmacology
=> Ion Channels & Neurotransmitter Receptors
=> The Synapse & Synaptic Potentials
=> Sites of Drug Action
=> Identification of Central Neurotransmitters
=> Cellular Organization of the Brain
=> Central Neurotransmitters

Sedative Hypnotic Drugs


=> Basic Pharmacology of Sedative Hypnotics
=> Chemical Classification - Basic Pharmacology of Sedative Hypnotics
=> Pharmacokinetics - Basic Pharmacology of Sedative Hypnotics
=> Pharmacodynamics of Benzodiazepines, Barbiturates, & Newer Hypnotics
=> Tolerance & Dependence - Basic Pharmacology of Sedative Hypnotics
=> Benzodiazepine Antagonists: Flumazenil
=> Treatment of Anxiety States
=> Treatment of Sleep Problems
=> Other Therapeutic Uses
=> Clinical Toxicology of Sedative-Hypnotics

The Alcohols


=> The Alcohols
=> Basic Pharmacology of Ethanol: Pharmacokinetics
=> Pharmacodynamics of Acute Ethanol Consumption
=> Consequences of Chronic Alcohol Consumption
=> What Can Drunken Worms, Flies, and Mice Tell Us about Alcohol?
=> Alcohol-Drug Interactions
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Ethanol
=> Management of Acute Alcohol Intoxication
=> Management of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome
=> Treatment of Alcoholism
=> Pharmacology of Methanol
=> Pharmacology of Ethylene Glycol

Antiseizure Drugs


=> Antiseizure Drugs
=> Drug Development for Epilepsy - Antiseizure Drugs
=> Basic Pharmacology of Antiseizure Drugs
=> Drugs Used in Partial Seizures Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures
=> Phenytoin
=> Mephenytoin, Ethotoin, & Phenacemide
=> Carbamazepine
=> Oxcarbazepine
=> Eslicarbazine
=> Phenobarbital
=> Primidone
=> Felbamate
=> Gabapentin & Pregabalin
=> Lacosamide
=> Lamotrigine
=> Levetiracetam
=> Retigabine (Ezogabine)
=> Rufinamide
=> Stiripentol
=> Tiagabine
=> Topiramate
=> Vigabatrin
=> Zonisamide
=> Ethosuximide
=> Phensuximide & Methsuximide
=> Valproic Acid & Sodium Valproate
=> Oxazolidinediones
=> Benzodiazepines
=> Acetazolamide
=> Seizure Classification - Clinical Pharmacology of Antiseizure Drugs
=> Therapeutic Strategy - Clinical Pharmacology of Antiseizure Drugs
=> Management of Epilepsy
=> Special Aspects of the Toxicology of Antiseizure Drugs

General Anesthetics


=> General Anesthetics
=> Mechanism of General Anesthetic Action
=> Inhaled Anesthetics
=> Pharmacokinetics - Inhaled Anesthetics
=> Pharmacodynamics - Inhaled Anesthetics
=> What Does Anesthesia Represent & Where Does It Work?
=> Intravenous Anesthetics
=> Propofol - Intravenous Anesthetics
=> Fospropofol - Intravenous Anesthetics
=> Barbiturates - Intravenous Anesthetics
=> Benzodiazepines - Intravenous Anesthetics
=> Etomidate - Intravenous Anesthetics
=> Ketamine - Intravenous Anesthetics
=> Dexmedetomidine - Intravenous Anesthetics
=> Opioid Analgesics - Intravenous Anesthetics
=> Current Clinical Practice - Intravenous Anesthetics

Local Anesthetics


=> Local Anesthetics
=> Basic Pharmacology of Local Anesthetics
=> Historical Development of Local Anesthesia
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Local Anesthetics
=> Lipid Resuscitation
=> Commonly Used Local Anesthetics & Their Applications

Skeletal Muscle Relaxants


=> Skeletal Muscle Relaxants
=> Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs
=> Basic Pharmacology of Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs
=> Spasmolytic Drugs
=> Diazepam - Spasmolytic Drugs
=> Baclofen
=> Tizanidine - Spasmolytic Drugs
=> Dantrolene - Spasmolytic Drugs
=> Botulinum Toxin - Spasmolytic Drugs
=> Drugs Used to Treat Acute Local Muscle Spasm

Pharmacologic Management of Parkinsonism Other Movement Disorders


=> Pharmacologic Management of Parkinsonism & Other Movement Disorders
=> Parkinsonism
=> Levodopa
=> Dopamine Receptor Agonists
=> Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
=> Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Inhibitors
=> Apomorphine
=> Amantadine
=> Acetylcholine-Blocking Drugs
=> Surgical Procedures - Parkinsonism
=> Neuroprotective Therapy - Parkinsonism
=> Gene Therapy - Parkinsonism
=> General Comments On Drug Management of Patients With Parkinsonism
=> Drug-Induced Parkinsonism
=> MPTP & Parkinsonism
=> Other Movement Disorders

Antipsychotic Agents Lithium


=> Antipsychotic Agents
=> The Serotonin Hypothesis of Schizophrenia
=> The Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia
=> The Glutamate Hypothesis of Schizophrenia
=> Basic Pharmacology of Antipsychotic Agents
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Antipsychotic Agents
=> Lithium, Mood Stabilizing Drugs, & Other Treatment For Bipolar Disorder
=> Basic Pharmacology of Lithium
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Lithium

Antidepressant Agents


=> Antidepressant Agents
=> Pathophysiology of Major Depression
=> Neurotrophic Hypothesis
=> Monoamines and Other Neurotransmitters
=> Neuroendocrine Factors in the Pathophysiology of Depression
=> Integration of Hypotheses Regarding the Pathophysiology of Depression
=> Basic Pharmacology of Antidepressants
=> Clinical Indications - Clinical Pharmacology of Antidepressants
=> Choosing an Antidepressant - Clinical Pharmacology of Antidepressants
=> Dosing - Clinical Pharmacology of Antidepressants
=> Adverse Effects - Clinical Pharmacology of Antidepressants
=> Overdose - Clinical Pharmacology of Antidepressants
=> Drug Interactions - Clinical Pharmacology of Antidepressants

Opioid Analgesics Antagonists


=> Basic Pharmacology of the Opioid Analgesics
=> Pharmacokinetics - Basic Pharmacology of the Opioid Analgesics
=> Pharmacodynamics - Basic Pharmacology of the Opioid Analgesics
=> Clinical Pharmacology of the Opioid Analgesics
=> Ion Channels & Novel Analgesic Targets
=> Clinical Use of Opioid Analgesics
=> Toxicity & Undesired Effects - Clinical Pharmacology of the Opioid Analgesics
=> Strong Agonists
=> MILD to Moderate Agonists
=> Opioids With Mixed Receptor Actions
=> Antitussives
=> The Opioid Antagonists

Drugs of Abuse


=> Drugs of Abuse
=> Dependence Versus Addiction
=> Addictive Drugs Increase the Level of Dopamine: Reinforcement
=> Animal Models in Addiction Research
=> The Dopamine Hypothesis of Addiction
=> Dependence: Tolerance & Withdrawal - Drugs of Abuse
=> Addiction: A Disease of Maladaptive Learning
=> Nonaddictive Drugs of Abuse
=> Basic Pharmacology of Drugs of Abuse
=> Opioids - Drugs That Activate Gio-Coupled Receptors
=> Cannabinoids - Drugs That Activate Gio-Coupled Receptors
=> Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid - Drugs That Activate Gio-Coupled Receptors
=> LSD, Mescaline, & Psilocybin
=> Drugs that Mediate their Effects via Ionotropic Receptors
=> Drugs that Bind to Transporters of Biogenic Amines
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Dependence & Addiction

Agents Used in Anemias Hematopoietic Growth Factors


=> Agents Used in Anemias; Hematopoietic Growth Factors
=> Sickle Cell Disease and Hydroxyurea
=> Iron - Agents Used In Anemias
=> VITAMIN B12 - Agents Used In Anemias
=> Folic Acid - Agents Used In Anemias
=> Folic Acid Supplementation: A Public Health Dilemma
=> Hematopoietic Growth Factors
=> Erythropoietin - Hematopoietic Growth Factors
=> Myeloid Growth Factors
=> Megakaryocyte Growth Factors

Drugs Used in Disorders of Coagulation


=> Drugs Used in Disorders of Coagulation
=> Mechanisms of Blood Coagulation
=> Blood Coagulation Cascade
=> Basic Pharmacology of the Anticoagulant Drugs
=> Indirect Thrombin Inhibitors
=> Oral Direct Factor XA Inhibitors
=> Direct Thrombin Inhibitors
=> Warfarin & Other Coumarin Anticoagulants
=> Basic Pharmacology of the Fibrinolytic Drugs
=> Basic Pharmacology of Antiplatelet Agents
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Drugs Used to Prevent Clotting
=> Drugs Used in Bleeding Disorders

Agents Used in Dyslipidemia


=> Agents Used in Dyslipidemia
=> Normal Lipoprotein Metabolism
=> Lipoprotein Disorders
=> The Primary Hypertriglyceridemias
=> The Primary Hypercholesterolemias
=> Secondary Hyperlipoproteinemia
=> Competitive Inhibitors of HMG-COA Reductase (Reductase Inhibitors; 'Statins')
=> NIACIN (Nicotinic Acid)
=> Fibric Acid Derivatives (FIBRATES)
=> Bile Acid-Binding Resins
=> Inhibitors of Intestinal Sterol Absorption
=> CETP Inhibitors and Treatment With Drug Combinations

Nonsteroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs Nonopioid Analgesics Drugs Used in Gout


=> The Immune Response
=> Therapeutic Strategies
=> Nonsteroidalanti Inflammatory Drugs
=> Aspirin
=> Nonacetylated Salicylates
=> Cox-2 Selective Inhibitors
=> Nonselective Cox Inhibitors
=> Choice of NSAID
=> Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs
=> Abatacept
=> Azathioprine
=> Chloroquine & Hydroxychloroquine
=> Cyclophosphamide
=> Cyclosporine
=> Leflunomide
=> Methotrexate
=> Mycophenolate Mofetil
=> Rituximab
=> Sulfasalazine
=> Tocilizumab
=> TNF-α-Blocking Agents
=> Combination Therapy With Dmards
=> Acetaminophen
=> Drugs Used In Gout
=> Colchicine
=> Nsaids In Gout
=> Uricosuric Agents
=> Allopurinol
=> Febuxostat
=> Pegloticase
=> Glucocorticoids
=> Interleukin-1 Inhibitors

ENDOCRINE DRUGS

Hypothalamic Pituitary Hormones


=> Hypothalamic & Pituitary Hormones
=> Anterior Pituitary & Hypothalamic Hormone Receptors
=> Growth Hormone (Somatotropin)
=> Treatment of Obesity
=> Mecasermin
=> Growth Hormone Antagonists
=> Gonadotropins & Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
=> Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone & Its Analogs
=> GNRH Receptor Antagonists
=> Prolactin
=> Dopamine Agonists
=> Oxytocin
=> Oxytocin Antagonist
=> Vasopressin (Antidiuretic Hormone, ADH)
=> Vasopressin Antagonists

Thyroid Antithyroid Drugs


=> Thyroid Physiology
=> Thyroid Hormones
=> Antithyroid Agents
=> Thioamides
=> Anion Inhibitors
=> Iodides
=> Radioactive Iodine
=> Adrenoceptor-Blocking Agents
=> Hypothyroidism
=> Hyperthyroidism
=> Nontoxic Goiter
=> Thyroid Neoplasms

Adrenocorticosteroids And Adrenocortical Antagonists


=> Adrenocorticosteroids
=> The Naturally Occurring Glucocorticoids; Cortisol (Hydrocortisone)
=> Synthetic Corticosteroids
=> Clinical Pharmacology - Synthetic Corticosteroids
=> Toxicity - Synthetic Corticosteroids
=> Contraindications & Cautions - Synthetic Corticosteroids
=> Selection of Drug & Dosage Schedule - Synthetic Corticosteroids
=> Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone, Deoxycorticosterone, Fludrocortisone)
=> Adrenal Androgens
=> Synthesis Inhibitors & Glucocorticoid Antagonists
=> Mineralocorticoid Antagonists

The Gonadal Hormones Inhibitors


=> Disturbances in Ovarian Function
=> The Estrogens
=> Physiologic Effects - The Estrogens
=> Clinical Uses - The Estrogens
=> Adverse Effects - The Estrogens
=> Preparations & Dosages - The Estrogens
=> The Progestins
=> Other Ovarian Hormones
=> Hormonal Contraception
=> Pharmacologic Effects - Hormonal Contraception
=> Clinical Uses - Hormonal Contraception
=> Adverse Effects - Hormonal Contraception
=> Contraindications & Cautions - Hormonal Contraception
=> Contraception with Progestins Alone - Hormonal Contraception
=> Tamoxifen & Related Partial Agonist Estrogens
=> Mifepristone
=> Danazol
=> Other Inhibitors
=> Ovulation-Inducing Agents
=> The Testis
=> Androgens & Anabolic Steroids
=> Metabolism - The Testis
=> Androgen Suppression & Antiandrogens
=> Chemical Contraception in Men

Pancreatic Hormones Antidiabetic Drugs


=> The Endocrine Pancreas
=> Insulin
=> Characteristics of Available Insulin Preparations
=> Insulin Delivery Systems
=> Treatment with Insulin, Benefit of Glycemic Control in Diabetes Mellitus
=> Insulin Regimens
=> Benefits of Tight Glycemic Control in Diabetes
=> Insulin Treatment of Special Circumstances
=> Complications of Insulin Therapy
=> Oral Antidiabetic Agents
=> Insulin Secretagogues: Sulfonylureas
=> First-Generation Sulfonylureas
=> Second-Generation Sulfonylureas
=> Insulin Secretagogue: Meglitinide
=> Insulin Secretagogue: D-Phenylalanine Derivative
=> Biguanides
=> Thiazolidinediones
=> Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors
=> Bile Acid Sequestrants
=> Amylin Analog
=> Glucagon-Like Polypeptide-1 (GLP-1) Receptor Agonists
=> Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-4) Inhibitors
=> Combination Therapy-Oral Antidiabetic Agents & Injectable Medication
=> Glucagon
=> Islet Amyloid Polypeptide IAPP, Amylin

Agents That Affect Bone Mineral Homeostasis


=> Basic Pharmacology
=> Parathyroid Hormone - Principal Hormonal Regulators of Bone Mineral Homeostasis
=> Vitamin D - Principal Hormonal Regulators of Bone Mineral Homeostasis
=> Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 - Principal Hormonal Regulators of Bone Mineral Homeostasis
=> Interaction of PTH, FGF23, & Vitamin D
=> Secondary Hormonal Regulators of Bone Mineral Homeostasis
=> Newer Therapies for Osteoporosis
=> Nonhormonal Agents Affecting Bone Mineral Homeostasis
=> Clinical Pharmacology - Agents That Affect Bone Mineral Homeostasis
=> Abnormal Serum Calcium & Phosphate Levels
=> Specific Disorders Involving Bone Mineral-Regulating Hormones
=> Other Disorders of Bone Mineral Homeostasis

Introduction To Antimicrobial Agents


=> Introduction to Antimicrobial Agents

CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC DRUGS

Beta Lactam OtherCell Wall Membrane Active Antibiotics


=> Beta Lactam Compounds: Penicillins
=> Cephalosporins & Cephamycins
=> Monobactams - Beta Lactam Drugs
=> Beta-Lactamase Inhibitors (Clavulanic Acid, Sulbactam, & Tazobactam) - Beta Lactam Drugs
=> Carbapenems - Beta Lactam Drugs
=> Glycopeptide Antibiotics
=> Other Cell Wall or Membrane Active Agents

Tetracyclines Macrolides Clindamycin Chloramphenicol Streptogramins Oxazolidinones


=> Tetracyclines
=> Macrolides
=> Erythromycin - Macrolides
=> Clarithromycin - Macrolides
=> Azithromycin - Macrolides
=> Ketolides - Macrolides
=> Clindamycin
=> Streptogramins
=> Chloramphenicol
=> Oxazolidinones

Aminoglycosides Spectinomycin


=> General Properties of Aminoglycosides
=> Streptomycin
=> Gentamicin
=> Tobramycin
=> Amikacin
=> Netilmicin
=> Neomycin & Kanamycin
=> Spectinomycin

SulfonamidesTrimethoprim Quinolones


=> Sulfonamides - Antifolate Drugs
=> Trimethoprim & Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Mixtures - Antifolate Drugs
=> Dna Gyrase Inhibitors : Fluoroquinolones

Antimycobacterial Drugs


=> Antimycobacterial Drugs
=> Drugs Used In Tuberculosis
=> Isoniazid - Drugs Used In Tuberculosis
=> Rifampin - Drugs Used In Tuberculosis
=> Ethambutol - Drugs Used In Tuberculosis
=> Pyrazinamide - Drugs Used In Tuberculosis
=> Streptomycin - Drugs Used In Tuberculosis
=> Second-Line Drugs for Tuberculosis
=> Rifaximin
=> Drugs Active Against Atypical Mycobacteria
=> Drugs Used in Leprosy

Antifungal Agents


=> Antifungal Agents
=> Amphotericin B
=> Flucytosine
=> Azoles
=> Echinocandins
=> Oral Systemic Antifungal Drugs for Mucocutaneous Infections
=> Topical Antifungal Therapy

Antiviral Agents


=> Antiviral Agents
=> Agents to Treat Herpes Simplex Virus HSV & Varicella Zoster Virus VZV Infections
=> Agents to Treat Cytomegalovirus CMV Infections
=> Antiretroviral Agents
=> Nucleoside & Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
=> Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
=> Protease Inhibitors
=> Entry Inhibitors
=> Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors
=> New & Investigational Antiretroviral Agents
=> Treatment of Hepatitis B Virus Infection
=> Treatment of Hepatitis C Infection
=> Anti Influenza Agents
=> Other Antiviral Agents

Miscellaneous Antimicrobial Agents DisinfectantsAntiseptics Sterilants


=> Metronidazole
=> Mupirocin
=> Polymyxins
=> Fidaxomicin
=> Urinary Antiseptics
=> Disinfectants, Antiseptics, & Sterilants
=> Alcohols - Disinfectants, Antiseptics, & Sterilants
=> Chlorhexidine - Disinfectants, Antiseptics, & Sterilants
=> Halogens - Disinfectants, Antiseptics, & Sterilants
=> Phenolics - Disinfectants, Antiseptics, & Sterilants
=> Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
=> Aldehydes - Disinfectants, Antiseptics, & Sterilants
=> Superoxidized Water - Disinfectants, Antiseptics, & Sterilants
=> Peroxygen Compounds - Disinfectants, Antiseptics, & Sterilants
=> Heavy Metals - Disinfectants, Antiseptics, & Sterilants
=> Sterilants - Disinfectants, Antiseptics, & Sterilants
=> Preservatives - Disinfectants, Antiseptics, & Sterilants

Clinical Use of Antimicrobial Agents


=> Clinical Use of Antimicrobial Agents
=> Empiric Antimicrobial Therapy
=> Antimicrobial Therapy of Infections with Known Etiology
=> Management of Antimicrobial Drug Toxicity
=> Antimicrobial Drug Combinations
=> Antimicrobial Prophylaxis

Antiprotozoal Drugs


=> Parasite Life Cycle - Malaria
=> Drug Classification - Malaria
=> Chemoprophylaxis & Treatment - Malaria
=> Malaria: Chloroquine
=> Other Quinolines - Malaria
=> Artemisinin & Its Derivatives - Malaria
=> Quinine & Quinidine - Malaria
=> Mefloquine - Malaria
=> Primaquine - Malaria
=> Atovaquone - Malaria
=> Inhibitors of Folate Synthesis - Malaria
=> Antibiotics - Malaria
=> Halofantrine & Lumefantrine - Malaria
=> Treatment of Specific Forms of Amebiasis
=> Metronidazole & Tinidazole
=> Iodoquinol
=> Diloxanide Furoate
=> Paromomycin Sulfate
=> Emetine & Dehydroemetine
=> Pentamidine Antiprotozoal Drugs
=> Sodium Stibogluconate Antiprotozoal Drugs
=> Nitazoxanide Antiprotozoal Drugs
=> Other Drugs for Trypanosomiasis & Leishmaniasis

Clinical Pharmacology of the Antihelminthic Drugs


=> Chemotherapy of Helminthic Infections
=> Albendazole
=> Bithionol
=> Diethylcarbamazine Citrate
=> Doxycycline
=> Ivermectin
=> Mebendazole
=> Metrifonate (Trichlorfon)
=> Niclosamide
=> Oxamniquine
=> Piperazine
=> Praziquantel
=> Pyrantel Pamoate
=> Thiabendazole

Cancer Chemotherapy


=> Cancer Chemotherapy
=> Causes of Cancer
=> Cancer Treatment Modalities
=> Role of Cell Cycle Kinetics & Anticancer Effect
=> Drug Resistance - Cancer Chemotherapy
=> Alkylating Agents - Pharmacology of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Drugs
=> Nitrosoureas
=> Nonclassic Alkylating Agents
=> Platinum Analogs
=> Antimetabolites
=> Antifolates
=> Fluoropyrimidines
=> Deoxycytidine Analogs
=> Purine Antagonists
=> Vinca Alkaloids
=> Taxanes & Related Drugs
=> Epipodophyllotoxins
=> Camptothecins
=> Antitumor Antibiotics
=> Miscellaneous Anticancer Drugs
=> Clinical Pharmacology of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Drugs
=> The Leukemias
=> Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
=> Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
=> Multiple Myeloma
=> Breast Cancer
=> Gastrointestinal Cancers
=> Lung Cancer
=> Ovarian Cancer
=> Testicular Cancer
=> Malignant Melanoma
=> Brain Cancer
=> Secondary Malignancies & Cancer Chemotherapy

Immunopharmacology


=> Immunopharmacology
=> Normal Immune Responses
=> Abnormal Immune Responses
=> Glucocorticoids - Immunosuppressive Agents
=> Calcineurin Inhibitors - Immunosuppressive Agents
=> Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibitors
=> Mycophenolate Mofetil - Immunosuppressive Agents
=> Immunomodulatory Derivatives Of Thalidomide (IMiDs)
=> Cytotoxic Agents - Immunosuppressive Agents
=> Immunosuppressive Antibodies
=> Monoclonal Antibodies (MABs)
=> Clinical Uses of Immunosuppressive Drugs
=> Immunologic Reactions to Drugs & Drug Allergy
=> Immediate (Type I) Drug Allergy
=> Autoimmune (Type Ii) Reactions to Drugs
=> Serum Sickness & Vasculitic (Type III) Reactions

TOXICOLOGY

Introduction to Toxicology Occupational Environmental


=> Introduction to Toxicology: Occupational & Environmental
=> Toxicologic Terms & Definitions
=> Environmental Considerations - Toxicology
=> Air Pollutants - Specific Chemicals
=> Solvents - Specific Chemicals
=> Pesticides - Specific Chemicals
=> Herbicides - Specific Chemicals
=> Environmental Pollutants - Specific Chemicals
=> Metals - Specific Chemicals

Heavy Metal Intoxication Chelators


=> Toxicology of Lead
=> Major Forms of Lead Intoxication
=> Treatment - Toxicology of Lead
=> Toxicology of Arsenic
=> Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics - Toxicology of Arsenic
=> Major Forms of Arsenic Intoxication
=> Toxicology of Mercury
=> Pharmacokinetics - Toxicology of Mercury
=> Major Forms of Mercury Intoxication
=> Treatment - Toxicology of Mercury
=> Pharmacology of Chelators
=> Dimercaprol (2,3-Dimercaptopropanol, BAL)
=> Succimer (Dimercaptosuccinic ACID, DMSA)
=> Edetate Calcium Disodium (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid, EDTA)
=> Unithiol (Dimercaptopropanesulfonic Acid, DMPS)
=> Penicillamine (D-Dimethlcysteine)
=> Deferoxamine
=> Deferasirox
=> Prussian Blue (Ferric Hexacyanoferrate)

Management of the Poisoned Patient


=> Management of the Poisoned Patient
=> Toxicokinetics & Toxicodynamics
=> Approach to the Poisoned Patient
=> Initial Management of the Poisoned Patient
=> Toxic Syndromes: Acetaminophen
=> Toxic Syndromes: Amphetamines & Other Stimulants
=> Toxic Syndromes: Anticholinergic Agents
=> Toxic Syndromes: Antidepressants
=> Toxic Syndromes: Antipsychotics
=> Toxic Syndromes: Aspirin (Salicylate)
=> Toxic Syndromes: Beta Blockers
=> Toxic Syndromes: Calcium Channel Blockers
=> Toxic Syndromes: Cholinesterase Inhibitors
=> Toxic Syndromes: Cyanide
=> Toxic Syndromes: Digoxin
=> Toxic Syndromes: Ethanol & Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs
=> Toxic Syndromes: Ethylene Glycol & Methanol
=> Toxic Syndromes: Rattlesnake Envenomation
=> Toxic Syndromes: Theophylline

SPECIAL TOPICS

Special Aspects of Perinatal Pediatric Pharmacology


=> Drug Therapy in Pregnancy
=> Drug Therapy in Infants & Children
=> Pediatric Dosage Forms & Compliance
=> Drug Use During Lactation
=> Pediatric Drug Dosage

Special Aspects of Geriatric Pharmacology


=> Special Aspects of Geriatric Pharmacology
=> Pharmacologic Changes Associated With Aging
=> Central Nervous System Drugs
=> Cardiovascular Drugs
=> Antimicrobial Drugs
=> Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
=> Ophthalmic Drugs
=> Adverse Drug Reactions in the Elderly
=> Practical Aspects of Geriatric Pharmacology

Dermatologic Pharmacology


=> Dermatologic Pharmacology
=> Dermatologic Vehicles
=> Antibacterial Agents
=> Antifungal Agents
=> Oral Antifungal Agents
=> Topical Antiviral Agents
=> Immunomodulators
=> Ectoparasiticides
=> Agents Affecting Pigmentation
=> Sunscreens
=> Acne Preparations
=> Drugs for Psoriasis
=> Biologic Agents
=> Anti Inflammatory Agents
=> Keratolytic & Destructive Agents
=> Antipruritic Agents
=> Trichogenic & Antitrichogenic Agents
=> Antineoplastic Agents
=> Antiseborrhea Agents

Drugs Used in the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Diseases


=> Drugs Used in the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Diseases
=> Physiology of Acid Secretion - Agents that Reduce Intragastric Acidity
=> Antacids - Agents that Reduce Intragastric Acidity
=> H2-Receptor Antagonists - Agents that Reduce Intragastric Acidity
=> Proton Pump Inhibitors
=> Mucosal Protective Agents
=> Drugs Stimulating Gastrointestinal Motility
=> Laxatives
=> Antidiarrheal Agents
=> Drugs Used in the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome
=> Antiemetic Agents
=> Drugs Used to Treat Inflammatory Bowel Disease
=> Aminosalicylates
=> Glucocorticoids
=> Purine Analogs: Azathioprine & 6-Mercaptopurine
=> Methotrexate
=> Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy
=> Anti-Integrin Therapy
=> Pancreatic Enzyme Supplements
=> Bile Acid Therapy For Gallstones
=> Drugs Used to Treat Variceal Hemorrhage

Dietary Supplements Herbal Medications


=> Dietary Supplements & Herbal Medications
=> Historical & Regulatory Factors - Dietary Supplements & Herbal Medications
=> Clinical Aspects of the Use of Botanicals
=> Botanical Substances: Echinacea (Echinacea Purpurea)
=> Botanical Substances: Garlic (Allium Sativum)
=> Botanical Substances: Ginkgo (Ginkgo Biloba)
=> Botanical Substances: Ginseng
=> Botanical Substances: Milk Thistle (Silybum Marianum)
=> St. John’s Wort (Hypericumperforatum)
=> Saw Palmetto (Serenoa Repens Orsabal Serrulata)
=> Coenzyme Q10
=> Glucosamine
=> Melatonin

Rational Prescribing Prescription Writing


=> Rational Prescribing
=> The Prescription
=> Prescribing Errors
=> E-Prescribing
=> Compliance
=> Who May Prescribe?
=> Socioeconomic Factors
=> The Cost of Prescriptions



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