Medical Physiology

Online Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki and important questions and answers

Medical Physiology

Introduction to Physiology Functional Organization of the Human Body and Control of the Internal Environment

=> Functional Organization of the Human Body and Control of the “Internal Environment”
=> Cells as the Living Units of the Body
=> Extracellular Fluid-The “Internal Environment”
=> “Homeostatic” Mechanisms of the Major Functional Systems
=> Control Systems of the Body
=> Examples of Control Mechanisms of the Body
=> Characteristics of Control Systems of the Body

Introduction to Physiology The Cell and Its Functions

=> Organization of the Cell
=> Physical Structure of the Cell
=> Membranous Structures of the Cell
=> Cytoplasm and Its Organelles - Physical Structure of the Cell
=> Nucleus and Nuclear Membrane - Physical Structure of the Cell
=> Nucleoli and Formation of Ribosomes
=> Comparison of the Animal Cell with Precellular Forms of Life
=> Functional Systems of the Cell
=> Ingestion by the Cell - Endocytosis - Functional Systems of the Cell
=> Digestion of Pinocytotic and Phagocytic Foreign Substances Inside the Cell - Function of the Lysosomes
=> Synthesis and Formation of Cellular Structures by Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Apparatus
=> Extraction of Energy from Nutrients - Function of the Mitochondria
=> Locomotion of Cells
=> Ameboid Movement
=> Cilia and Ciliary Movements

Introduction to Physiology Genetic Control of Protein Synthesis Cell Function and Cell Reproduction

=> Genes in the Cell Nucleus
=> DNA Code in the Cell Nucleus Is Transferred to an RNA Code in the Cell Cytoplasm - The Process of Transcription
=> Synthesis of Other Substances in the Cell
=> Control of Gene Function and Biochemical Activity in Cells
=> The DNA-Genetic System Also Controls Cell Reproduction
=> Cell Differentiation
=> Apoptosis-Programmed Cell Death
=> Cancer

Membrane Physiology Nerve and Muscle Transport of Substances Through the Cell Membrane

=> The Lipid Barrier of the Cell Membrane, and Cell Membrane Transport Proteins
=> Diffusion
=> Diffusion Through the Cell Membrane
=> Diffusion Through Protein Channels, and “Gating” of These Channels
=> Facilitated Diffusion
=> Factors That Affect Net Rate of Diffusion
=> Osmosis Across Selectively Permeable Membranes - “Net Diffusion” of Water
=> “Active Transport” of Substances Through Membranes
=> Primary Active Transport
=> Secondary Active Transport - Co-Transport and Counter-Transport
=> Active Transport Through Cellular Sheets

Membrane Physiology Nerve and Muscle Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials

=> Basic Physics of Membrane Potentials
=> Measuring the Membrane Potential
=> Resting Membrane Potential of Nerves
=> Nerve Action Potential
=> Roles of Other Ions During the Action Potential
=> Propagation of the Action Potential
=> Re-establishing Sodium and Potassium Ionic Gradients After Action Potentials Are Completed
=> Plateau in Some Action Potentials
=> Rhythmicity of Some Excitable Tissues-Repetitive Discharge
=> Special Characteristics of Signal Transmission in Nerve Trunks
=> Excitation-The Process of Eliciting the Action Potential
=> Recording Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials

Membrane Physiology Nerve and Muscle Contraction of Skeletal Muscle

=> Physiologic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
=> General Mechanism of Muscle Contraction
=> Molecular Mechanism of Muscle Contraction
=> Molecular Characteristics of the Contractile Filaments
=> Effect of Amount of Actin and Myosin Filament Overlap on Tension Developed by the Contracting Muscle
=> Relation of Velocity of Contraction to Load
=> Energetics of Muscle Contraction
=> Characteristics of Whole Muscle Contraction
=> Mechanics of Skeletal Muscle Contraction
=> Remodeling of Muscle to Match Function
=> Rigor Mortis

Excitation of Skeletal Muscle Neuromuscular Transmission and Excitation Contraction Coupling

=> Transmission of Impulses from Nerve Endings to Skeletal Muscle Fibers: The Neuromuscular Junction
=> Secretion of Acetylcholine by the Nerve Terminals
=> Molecular Biology of Acetylcholine Formation and Release
=> Drugs That Enhance or Block Transmission at the Neuromuscular Junction
=> Myasthenia Gravis
=> Muscle Action Potential
=> Excitation-Contraction Coupling

Contraction and Excitation of Smooth Muscle

=> Contraction of Smooth Muscle
=> Types of Smooth Muscle
=> Contractile Mechanism in Smooth Muscle
=> Regulation of Contraction of Smooth Muscle by Calcium Ions
=> Nervous and Hormonal Control of Smooth Muscle Contraction
=> Neuromuscular Junctions of Smooth Muscle
=> Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials in Smooth Muscle
=> Effect of Local Tissue Factors and Hormones to Cause Smooth Muscle Contraction Without Action Potentials
=> Source of Calcium Ions That Cause Contraction (1) Through the Cell Membrane and (2) from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

Heart Muscle The Heart as a Pump and Function of the Heart Valves

=> Physiology of Cardiac Muscle
=> Physiologic Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle
=> Action Potentials in Cardiac Muscle
=> The Cardiac Cycle
=> Diastole and Systole
=> Relationship of the Electrocardiogram to the Cardiac Cycle
=> Function of the Atria as Primer Pumps
=> Function of the Ventricles as Pumps
=> Function of the Valves
=> Aortic Pressure Curve
=> Relationship of the Heart Sounds to Heart Pumping
=> Work Output of the Heart: Graphical Analysis of Ventricular Pumping
=> Chemical Energy Required for Cardiac Contraction: Oxygen Utilization by the Heart
=> Regulation of Heart Pumping

Rhythmical Excitation of the Heart

=> Specialized Excitatory and Conductive System of the Heart
=> Sinus (Sinoatrial) Node
=> Internodal Pathways and Transmission of the Cardiac Impulse Through the Atria
=> Atrioventricular Node, and Delay of Impulse Conduction from the Atria to the Ventricles
=> Rapid Transmission in the Ventricular Purkinje System
=> Transmission of the Cardiac Impulse in the Ventricular Muscle
=> Control of Excitation and Conduction in the Heart
=> The Sinus Node as the Pacemaker of the Heart
=> Role of the Purkinje System in Causing Synchronous Contraction of the Ventricular Muscle
=> Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nerves

The Normal Electrocardiogram

=> Characteristics of the Normal Electrocardiogram
=> Methods for Recording Electrocardiograms
=> Flow of Current Around the Heart During the Cardiac Cycle
=> Electrocardiographic Leads: Three Bipolar Limb Leads, Chest Leads (Precordial Leads), Augmented Unipolar Limb Leads

Electrocardiographic Interpretation of Cardiac Muscle and Coronary Blood Flow Abnormalities Vectorial Analysis

=> Principles of Vectorial Analysis of Electrocardiograms
=> Vectorial Analysis of the Normal Electrocardiogram
=> Mean Electrical Axis of the Ventricular QRS - And Its Significance
=> Conditions That Cause Abnormal Voltages of the QRS Complex
=> Prolonged and Bizarre Patterns of the QRS Complex - Electrocardiographic
=> Current of Injury - Electrocardiographic Interpretation of Cardiac
=> Abnormalities in the T Wave - Electrocardiographic Interpretation of Cardiac Muscle and Coronary Blood Flow Abnormalities

Cardiac Arrhythmias and Their Electrocardiographic Interpretation

=> Cardiac Arrhythmias and Their Electrocardiographic Interpretation
=> Abnormal Sinus Rhythms
=> Tachycardia - Abnormal Sinus Rhythms
=> Bradycardia - Abnormal Sinus Rhythms
=> Sinus Arrhythmia - Abnormal Sinus Rhythms
=> Abnormal Rhythms That Result from Block of Heart Signals Within the Intracardiac Conduction Pathways
=> Premature Contractions
=> Paroxysmal Tachycardia
=> Atrial Paroxysmal Tachycardia
=> Ventricular Paroxysmal Tachycardia
=> Ventricular Fibrillation
=> Atrial Fibrillation
=> Atrial Flutter
=> Cardiac Arrest

Overview of the Circulation Medical Physics of Pressure Flow and Resistance

=> Physical Characteristics of the Circulation
=> Basic Theory of Circulatory Function
=> Interrelationships Among Pressure, Flow, and Resistance
=> Blood Flow
=> Blood Pressure
=> Resistance to Blood Flow
=> Effects of Pressure on Vascular Resistance and Tissue Blood Flow

Vascular Distensibility and Functions of the Arterial and Venous Systems

=> Vascular Distensibility
=> Arterial Pressure Pulsations
=> Veins and Their Functions
=> Venous Pressures-Right Atrial Pressure (Central Venous Pressure) and Peripheral Venous Pressures
=> Blood Reservoir Function of the Veins

The Microcirculation and the Lymphatic System Capillary Fluid Exchange Interstitial Fluid and Lymph Flow

=> Structure of the Microcirculation and Capillary System
=> Flow of Blood in the Capillaries-Vasomotion
=> Exchange of Water, Nutrients, and Other Substances Between the Blood and Interstitial Fluid
=> The Interstitium and Interstitial Fluid
=> Fluid Filtration Across Capillaries Is Determined by Hydrostatic and Colloid Osmotic Pressures, and Capillary Filtration Coefficient
=> Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure
=> Interstitial Fluid Hydrostatic Pressure
=> Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure
=> Interstitial Fluid Colloid Osmotic Pressure
=> Exchange of Fluid Volume Through the Capillary Membrane
=> Starling Equilibrium for Capillary Exchange
=> Lymphatic System
=> Lymph Channels of the Body
=> Formation of Lymph
=> Rate of Lymph Flow

Local and Humoral Control of Blood Flow by the Tissues

=> Local Control of Blood Flow in Response to Tissue Needs
=> Mechanisms of Blood Flow Control
=> Acute Control of Local Blood Flow - Mechanisms of Blood Flow Control
=> Long-Term Blood Flow Regulation - Mechanisms of Blood Flow Control
=> Development of Collateral Circulation-A Phenomenon of Long- Term Local Blood Flow Regulation
=> Humoral Control of the Circulation
=> Vascular Control by Ions and Other Chemical Factors

Nervous Regulation of the Circulation and Rapid Control of Arterial Pressure

=> Nervous Regulation of the Circulation
=> Role of the Nervous System in Rapid Control of Arterial Pressure
=> Increase in Arterial Pressure During Muscle Exercise and Other Types of Stress
=> Reflex Mechanisms for Maintaining Normal Arterial Pressure
=> Central Nervous System Ischemic Response
=> Special Features of Nervous Control of Arterial Pressure

Dominant Role of the Kidney in Long Term Regulation of Arterial Pressure and in Hypertension The Integrated System for Pressure Control

=> Renal-Body Fluid System for Arterial Pressure Control
=> Quantitation of Pressure Diuresis as a Basis for Arterial Pressure Control
=> Chronic Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Is Caused by Impaired Renal Fluid Excretion
=> The Renin-Angiotensin System: Its Role in Pressure Control and in Hypertension
=> Components of the Renin-Angiotensin System
=> Types of Hypertension in Which Angiotensin Is Involved
=> Other Types of Hypertension Caused by Combinations of Volume Loading and Vasoconstriction
=> “Primary (Essential) Hypertension”
=> Summary of the Integrated, Multifaceted System for Arterial Pressure Regulation

Cardiac Output Venous Return and Their Regulation

=> Normal Values for Cardiac Output at Rest and During Activity
=> Control of Cardiac Output by Venous Return-Role of the Frank-Starling Mechanism of the Heart
=> The Heart Has Limits for the Cardiac Output That It Can Achieve
=> What Is the Role of the Nervous System in Controlling Cardiac Output?
=> Pathologically High and Pathologically Low Cardiac Outputs
=> High Cardiac Output Caused by Reduced Total Peripheral Resistance
=> Low Cardiac Output
=> A More Quantitative Analysis of Cardiac Output Regulation
=> Cardiac Output Curves Used in the Quantitative Analysis
=> Venous Return Curves
=> Analysis of Cardiac Output and Right Atrial Pressure, Using Simultaneous Cardiac Output and Venous Return Curves
=> Methods for Measuring Cardiac Output

Muscle Blood Flow and Cardiac Output During Exercise the Coronary Circulation and schemic Heart Disease

=> Blood Flow in Skeletal Muscle and Blood Flow Regulation During Exercise
=> Rate of Blood Flow Through the Muscles
=> Control of Blood Flow Through the Skeletal Muscles
=> Total Body Circulatory Readjustments During Exercise
=> Coronary Circulation
=> Physiologic Anatomy of the Coronary Blood Supply
=> Normal Coronary Blood Flow
=> Control of Coronary Blood Flow
=> Special Features of Cardiac Muscle Metabolism
=> Ischemic Heart Disease
=> Causes of Death After Acute Coronary Occlusion
=> Stages of Recovery from Acute Myocardial Infarction
=> Function of the Heart After Recovery from Myocardial Infarction
=> Pain in Coronary Heart Disease
=> Surgical Treatment of Coronary Disease

Cardiac Failure

=> Acute Effects of Moderate Cardiac Failure
=> Chronic Stage of Failure-Fluid Retention Helps to Compensate Cardiac Output
=> Summary of the Changes That Occur After Acute Cardiac Failure- “Compensated Heart Failure”
=> Dynamics of Severe Cardiac Failure- Decompensated Heart Failure
=> Unilateral Left Heart Failure
=> Low-Output Cardiac Failure- Cardiogenic Shock
=> Edema in Patients with Cardiac Failure
=> Cardiac Reserve
=> Quantitative Graphical Method for Analysis of Cardiac Failure

Heart Valves and Heart Sounds Dynamics of Valvular and Congenital Heart Defects

=> Normal Heart Sounds
=> Valvular Lesions - Heart Sounds
=> Abnormal Circulatory Dynamics in Valvular Heart Disease
=> Abnormal Circulatory Dynamics in Congenital Heart Defects
=> Use of Extracorporeal Circulation During Cardiac Surgery
=> Hypertrophy of the Heart in Valvular and Congenital Heart Disease

Circulatory Shock and Physiology of Its Treatment

=> Physiologic Causes of Shock
=> Shock Caused by Hypovolemia-Hemorrhagic Shock
=> Relationship of Bleeding Volume to Cardiac Output and Arterial Pressure
=> Progressive and Nonprogressive Hemorrhagic Shock
=> Irreversible Shock
=> Hypovolemic Shock Caused by Plasma Loss
=> Hypovolemic Shock Caused by Trauma
=> Neurogenic Shock-Increased Vascular Capacity
=> Anaphylactic Shock and Histamine Shock
=> Septic Shock
=> Physiology of Treatment in Shock
=> Circulatory Arrest
=> Effect of Circulatory Arrest on the Brain

The Body Fluid Compartments Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids Interstitial Fluid and Edema

=> Fluid Intake and Output Are Balanced During Steady-State Conditions
=> Daily Intake of Water
=> Daily Loss of Body Water
=> Body Fluid Compartments
=> Blood Volume
=> Constituents of Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids
=> Measurement of Fluid Volumes in the Different Body Fluid Compartments-The Indicator-Dilution Principle
=> Determination of Volumes of Specific Body Fluid Compartments
=> Regulation of Fluid Exchange and Osmotic Equilibrium Between Intracellular and Extracellular Fluid
=> Basic Principles of Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
=> Osmotic Equilibrium Is Maintained Between Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids
=> Volume and Osmolality of Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids in Abnormal States
=> Effect of Adding Saline Solution to the Extracellular Fluid
=> Glucose and Other Solutions Administered for Nutritive Purposes
=> Clinical Abnormalities of Fluid Volume Regulation: Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia
=> Edema: Excess Fluid in the Tissues
=> Intracellular Edema
=> Extracellular Edema
=> Summary of Causes of Extracellular Edema
=> Safety Factors That Normally Prevent Edema
=> Fluids in the “Potential Spaces” of the Body

Urine Formation by the Kidneys I Glomerular Filtration Renal Blood Flow and Their Control

=> Multiple Functions of the Kidneys in Homeostasis
=> Physiologic Anatomy of the Kidneys
=> General Organization of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract
=> Renal Blood Supply
=> The Nephron Is the Functional Unit of the Kidney
=> Micturition
=> Physiologic Anatomy and Nervous Connections of the Bladder
=> Transport of Urine from the Kidney Through the Ureters and into the Bladder
=> Filling of the Bladder and Bladder Wall Tone; the Cystometrogram
=> Micturition Reflex
=> Abnormalities of Micturition
=> Urine Formation Results from Glomerular Filtration, Tubular Reabsorption, and Tubular Secretion
=> Glomerular Filtration-The First Step in Urine Formation
=> Determinants of the GFR
=> Renal Blood Flow
=> Physiologic Control of Glomerular Filtration and Renal Blood Flow
=> Autoregulation of GFR and Renal Blood Flow

Urine Formation by the Kidneys II Tubular Processing of the Glomerular Filtrate

=> Reabsorption and Secretion by the Renal Tubules
=> Tubular Reabsorption Includes Passive and Active Mechanisms
=> Active Transport - Tubular Reabsorption Includes Passive and Active Mechanisms
=> Passive Water Reabsorption by Osmosis Is Coupled Mainly to Sodium Reabsorption
=> Reabsorption of Chloride, Urea, and Other Solutes by Passive Diffusion
=> Reabsorption and Secretion Along Different Parts of the Nephron
=> Proximal Tubular Reabsorption
=> Solute and Water Transport in the Loop of Henle
=> Distal Tubule
=> Late Distal Tubule and Cortical Collecting Tubule
=> Medullary Collecting Duct
=> Regulation of Tubular Reabsorption
=> Use of Clearance Methods to Quantify Kidney Function

Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration

=> Kidneys Excrete Excess Water by Forming a Dilute Urine
=> Kidneys Conserve Water by Excreting a Concentrated Urine
=> Obligatory Urine Volume
=> Requirements for Excreting a Concentrated Urine-High ADH Levels and Hyperosmotic Renal Medulla
=> Countercurrent Mechanism Produces a Hyperosmotic Renal Medullary Interstitium
=> Role of Distal Tubule and Collecting Ducts in Excreting a Concentrated Urine
=> Urea Contributes to Hyperosmotic Renal Medullary Interstitium and to a Concentrated Urine
=> Countercurrent Exchange in the Vasa Recta Preserves Hyperosmolarity of the Renal Medulla
=> Quantifying Renal Urine Concentration and Dilution: “Free Water” and Osmolar Clearances
=> Disorders of Urinary Concentrating Ability
=> Control of Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
=> Osmoreceptor-ADH Feedback System
=> Role of Thirst in Controlling Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
=> Salt-Appetite Mechanism for Controlling Extracellular Fluid Sodium Concentration and Volume

Renal Regulation of Potassium Calcium Phosphate and Magnesium Integration of Renal Mechanisms for Control of Blood Volume and Extracellular Fluid Volume

=> Regulation of Potassium Excretion and Potassium Concentration in Extracellular Fluid
=> Regulation of Internal Potassium Distribution
=> Overview of Renal Potassium Excretion
=> Potassium Secretion by Principal Cells of Late Distal and Cortical Collecting Tubules
=> Summary of Factors That Regulate Potassium Secretion
=> Control of Renal Calcium Excretion and Extracellular Calcium Ion Concentration
=> Control of Renal Magnesium Excretion and Extracellular Magnesium Ion Concentration
=> Integration of Renal Mechanisms for Control of Extracellular Fluid
=> Importance of Pressure Natriuresis and Pressure Diuresis in Maintaining Body Sodium and Fluid Balance
=> Distribution of Extracellular Fluid Between the Interstitial Spaces and Vascular System
=> Nervous and Hormonal Factors Increase the Effectiveness of Renal-Body Fluid Feedback Control
=> Role of Angiotensin II In Controlling Renal Excretion
=> Role of Aldosterone in Controlling Renal Excretion
=> Role of ADH in Controlling Renal Water Excretion
=> Role of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Controlling Renal Excretion
=> Integrated Responses to Changes in Sodium Intake
=> Conditions That Cause Large Increases in Blood Volume and Extracellular Fluid Volume
=> Conditions That Cause Large Increases in Extracellular Fluid Volume but with Normal Blood Volume

Regulation of Acid Base Balance

=> Regulation of Acid-Base Balance
=> Hydrogen Ion Concentration Is Precisely Regulated
=> Acids and Bases-Their Definitions and Meanings
=> Defenses Against Changes in Hydrogen Ion Concentration: Buffers, Lungs, and Kidneys
=> Buffering of Hydrogen Ions in the Body Fluids
=> Bicarbonate Buffer System
=> Quantitative Dynamics of the Bicarbonate Buffer System
=> Phosphate Buffer System
=> Proteins: Important Intracellular Buffers
=> Respiratory Regulation of Acid-Base Balance
=> Renal Control of Acid-Base Balance
=> Secretion of Hydrogen Ions and Reabsorption of Bicarbonate Ions by the Renal Tubules
=> Combination of Excess Hydrogen Ions with Phosphate and Ammonia Buffers in the Tubule-A Mechanism for Generating “New” Bicarbonate Ions
=> Quantifying Renal Acid-Base Excretion
=> Regulation of Renal Tubular Hydrogen Ion Secretion
=> Acidosis Decreases the Ratio of HCO3-/H+ in Renal Tubular Fluid
=> Alkalosis Increases the Ratio of HCO3-/H+ in Renal Tubular Fluid
=> Clinical Causes of Acid-Base Disorders
=> Treatment of Acidosis or Alkalosis
=> Clinical Measurements and Analysis of Acid-Base Disorders
=> Complex Acid-Base Disorders and Use of the Acid-Base Nomogram for Diagnosis
=> Use of Anion Gap to Diagnose Acid-Base Disorders

Kidney Diseases and Diuretics

=> Diuretics and Their Mechanisms of Action
=> Kidney Diseases
=> Acute Renal Failure
=> Prerenal Acute Renal Failure Caused by Decreased Blood Flow to the Kidney
=> Intrarenal Acute Renal Failure Caused by Abnormalities Within the Kidney
=> Postrenal Acute Renal Failure Caused by Abnormalities of the Lower Urinary Tract
=> Physiologic Effects of Acute Renal Failure
=> Chronic Renal Failure: An Irreversible Decrease in the Number of Functional Nephrons
=> Vicious Circle of Chronic Renal Failure Leading to End-Stage Renal Disease
=> Injury to the Renal Vasculature as a Cause of Chronic Renal Failure
=> Injury to the Glomeruli as a Cause of Chronic Renal Failure- lomerulonephritis
=> Injury to the Renal Interstitium as a Cause of Chronic Renal Failure- Pyelonephritis
=> Nephrotic Syndrome-Excretion of Protein in the Urine Because of Increased Glomerular Permeability
=> Nephron Function in Chronic Renal Failure
=> Effects of Renal Failure on the Body Fluids-Uremia
=> Hypertension and Kidney Disease
=> Specific Tubular Disorders
=> Treatment of Renal Failure by Dialysis with an Artificial Kidney

Red Blood Cells Anemia and Polycythemia

=> Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
=> Formation of Hemoglobin
=> Iron Metabolism - Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
=> Life Span and Destruction of Red Blood Cells
=> Anemias
=> Effects of Anemia on Function of the Circulatory System
=> Polycythemia
=> Effect of Polycythemia on Function of the Circulatory System

Resistance of the Body to Infection I Leukocytes Granulocytes the Monocyte Macrophage System and Inflammation

=> Leukocytes (White Blood Cells)
=> General Characteristics of Leukocytes
=> Genesis of the White Blood Cells
=> Life Span of the White Blood Cells
=> Neutrophils and Macrophages Defend Against Infections
=> Phagocytosis
=> Monocyte-Macrophage Cell System (Reticuloendothelial System)
=> Inflammation: Role of Neutrophils and Macrophages
=> Eosinophils
=> Basophils
=> Leukopenia
=> Leukemias and Effects of Leukemia on the Body

Resistance of the Body to Infection II Immunity and Allergy

=> Innate Immunity
=> Acquired (Adaptive) Immunity
=> Lymphocytes Are Responsible for Acquired Immunity
=> Preprocessing of the T and B Lymphocytes
=> T Lymphocytes and B-Lymphocyte Antibodies React Highly Specifically Against Specific Antigens
=> Origin of the Many Clones of Lymphocytes
=> Specific Attributes of the B-Lymphocyte System - Humoral Immunity and the Antibodies
=> Special Attributes of the T-Lymphocyte System - Activated T Cells and Cell-Mediated Immunity
=> Several Types of T Cells and Their Different Functions
=> Tolerance of the Acquired Immunity System to One’s Own Tissues - Role of Preprocessing in the Thymus and Bone Marrow
=> Immunization by Injection of Antigens
=> Passive Immunity
=> Allergy and Hypersensitivity
=> Allergies in the “Allergic” Person, Who Has Excess IgE Antibodies

Blood Types Transfusion Tissue and Organ Transplantation

=> Antigenicity Causes Immune Reactions of Blood
=> O-A-B Blood Types
=> Rh Blood Types
=> Rh Immune Response
=> Transfusion Reactions Resulting from Mismatched Blood Types
=> Transplantation of Tissues and Organs

Hemostasis and Blood Coagulation

=> Events in Hemostasis
=> Mechanism of Blood Coagulation
=> Conversion of Prothrombin to Thrombin
=> Conversion of Fibrinogen to Fibrin- Formation of the Clot
=> Vicious Circle of Clot Formation - Mechanism of Blood Coagulation
=> Initiation of Coagulation: Formation of Prothrombin Activator
=> Prevention of Blood Clotting in the Normal Vascular System- Intravascular Anticoagulants
=> Lysis of Blood Clots- Plasmin
=> Conditions That Cause Excessive Bleeding in Human Beings
=> Thromboembolic Conditions in the Human Being
=> Anticoagulants for Clinical Use
=> Blood Coagulation Tests

Pulmonary Ventilation

=> Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation
=> Muscles That Cause Lung Expansion and Contraction
=> Movement of Air In and Out of the Lungs and the Pressures That Cause the Movement
=> Effect of the Thoracic Cage on Lung Expansibility
=> Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities
=> Minute Respiratory Volume Equals Respiratory Rate Times Tidal Volume
=> Alveolar Ventilation
=> Functions of the Respiratory Passageways
=> Normal Respiratory Functions of the Nose
=> Vocalization - Functions of the Respiratory Passageways

Pulmonary Circulation Pulmonary Edema Pleural Fluid

=> Physiologic Anatomy of the Pulmonary Circulatory System
=> Pressures in the Pulmonary System
=> Blood Flow Through the Lungs and Its Distribution
=> Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure Gradients in the Lungs on Regional Pulmonary Blood Flow
=> Pulmonary Capillary Dynamics
=> Capillary Exchange of Fluid in the Lungs, and Pulmonary Interstitial Fluid Dynamics
=> Pulmonary Edema
=> Fluid in the Pleural Cavity

Physical Principles of Gas Exchange Diffusion of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Through the Respiratory Membrane

=> Physics of Gas Diffusion and Gas Partial Pressures
=> Composition of Alveolar Air - Its Relation to Atmospheric Air
=> Diffusion of Gases Through the Respiratory Membrane
=> Factors That Affect the Rate of Gas Diffusion Through the Respiratory Membrane
=> Diffusing Capacity of the Respiratory Membrane
=> Effect of the Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio on Alveolar Gas Concentration

Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Blood and Tissue Fluids

=> Transport of Oxygen from the Lungs to the Body Tissues
=> Diffusion of Oxygen from the Alveoli to the Pulmonary Capillary Blood
=> Transport of Oxygen in the Arterial Blood
=> Diffusion of Oxygen from the Peripheral Capillaries into the Tissue Fluid
=> Diffusion of Oxygen from the Peripheral Capillaries to the Tissue Cells
=> Diffusion of Carbon Dioxide from the Peripheral Tissue Cells into the Capillaries and from the Pulmonary Capillaries into the Alveoli
=> Role of Hemoglobin in Oxygen Transport
=> Reversible Combination of Oxygen with Hemoglobin
=> Effect of Hemoglobin to “Buffer” the Tissue PO2
=> Factors That Shift the Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve - Their Importance for Oxygen Transport
=> Metabolic Use of Oxygen by the Cells
=> Transport of Oxygen in the Dissolved State
=> Combination of Hemoglobin with Carbon Monoxide -Displacement of Oxygen
=> Transport of Carbon Dioxide in the Blood
=> Respiratory Exchange Ratio

Regulation of Respiration

=> Respiratory Center
=> Chemical Control of Respiration
=> Peripheral Chemoreceptor System for Control of Respiratory Activity - Role of Oxygen in Respiratory Control
=> Regulation of Respiration During Exercise
=> Other Factors That Affect Respiration
=> Sleep Apnea

Respiratory Insufficiency Pathophysiology Diagnosis Oxygen Therapy

=> Respiratory Insufficiency-Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Oxygen Therapy
=> Study of Blood Gases and Blood pH
=> Measurement of Maximum Expiratory Flow
=> Forced Expiratory Vital Capacity and Forced Expiratory Volume
=> Physiologic Peculiarities of Specific Pulmonary Abnormalities
=> Chronic Pulmonary Emphysema
=> Pneumonia
=> Atelectasis
=> Asthma
=> Tuberculosis
=> Hypoxia and Oxygen Therapy
=> Hypercapnia
=> Artificial Respiration

Aviation High Altitude and Space Physiology

=> Effects of Low Oxygen Pressure on the Body
=> Alveolar PO2 at Different Elevations
=> Effect of Breathing Pure Oxygen on Alveolar PO2 at Different Altitudes
=> Acute Effects of Hypoxia
=> Acclimatization to Low PO2
=> Natural Acclimatization of Native Human Beings Living at High Altitudes
=> Reduced Work Capacity at High Altitudes and Positive Effect of Acclimatization
=> Acute Mountain Sickness and High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema
=> Chronic Mountain Sickness
=> Effects of Acceleratory Forces on the Body in Aviation and Space Physiology
=> “Artificial Climate” in the Sealed Spacecraft
=> Weightlessness in Space

Physiology of Deep Sea Diving and Other Hyperbaric Conditions

=> Physiology of Deep-Sea Diving and Other Hyperbaric Conditions
=> Effect of High Partial Pressures of Individual Gases on the Body
=> Nitrogen Narcosis at High Nitrogen Pressures
=> Oxygen Toxicity at High Pressures
=> Carbon Dioxide Toxicity at Great Depths in the Sea
=> Decompression of the Diver After Excess Exposure to High Pressure
=> Scuba (Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus) Diving
=> Special Physiologic Problems in Submarines
=> Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

Organization of the Nervous System Basic Functions of Synapses Transmitter Substances

=> General Design of the Nervous System
=> Major Levels of Central Nervous System Function
=> Comparison of the Nervous System with a Computer
=> Central Nervous System Synapses
=> Types of Synapses-Chemical and Electrical - Central Nervous System Synapses
=> Physiologic Anatomy of the Synapse - Central Nervous System Synapses
=> Chemical Substances That Function as Synaptic Transmitters - Central Nervous System Synapses
=> Electrical Events During Neuronal Excitation - Central Nervous System Synapses
=> Electrical Events During Neuronal Inhibition - Central Nervous System Synapses
=> Special Functions of Dendrites for Exciting Neurons - Central Nervous System Synapses
=> Relation of State of Excitation of the Neuron to Rate of Firing - Central Nervous System Synapses
=> Some Special Characteristics of Synaptic Transmission

Sensory Receptors Neuronal Circuits for Processing Information

=> Types of Sensory Receptors and the Sensory Stimuli They Detect
=> Transduction of Sensory Stimuli into Nerve Impulses
=> Nerve Fibers That Transmit Different Types of Signals, and Their Physiologic Classification
=> Transmission of Signals of Different Intensity in Nerve Tracts-Spatial and Temporal Summation
=> Transmission and Processing of Signals in Neuronal Pools
=> Relaying of Signals Through Neuronal Pools
=> Prolongation of a Signal by a Neuronal Pool-“Afterdischarge”
=> Instability and Stability of Neuronal Circuits

Somatic Sensations I General Organization the Tactile and Position Senses

=> Classification of Somatic Senses
=> Detection and Transmission of Tactile Sensations
=> Sensory Pathways for Transmitting Somatic Signals into the Central Nervous System
=> Anatomy of the Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscal System
=> Somatosensory Cortex
=> Somatosensory Association Areas
=> Overall Characteristics of Signal Transmission and Analysis in the Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscal System
=> Interpretation of Sensory Stimulus Intensity
=> Judgment of Stimulus Intensity
=> Position Senses(proprioceptive senses)
=> Transmission of Less Critical Sensory Signals in the Anterolateral Pathway
=> Some Special Aspects of Somatosensory Function

Somatic Sensations II Pain Headache and Thermal Sensations

=> Types of Pain and Their Qualities-Fast Pain and Slow Pain
=> Pain Receptors and Their Stimulation
=> Dual Pathways for Transmission of Pain Signals into the Central Nervous System
=> Pain Suppression (“Analgesia”) System in the Brain and Spinal Cord
=> Referred Pain
=> Visceral Pain
=> Causes of True Visceral Pain
=> Some Clinical Abnormalities of Pain and Other Somatic Sensations
=> Headache
=> Headache of Intracranial Origin
=> Types of Intracranial Headache
=> Extracranial Types of Headache
=> Thermal Receptors and Their Excitation
=> Transmission of Thermal Signals in the Nervous System

The Eye I Optics of Vision

=> Physical Principles of Optics - Eye
=> The Eye as a Camera - Optics of the Eye
=> Mechanism of “Accommodation” - Optics of the Eye
=> Pupillary Diameter - Optics of the Eye
=> Errors of Refraction - Optics of the Eye
=> Visual Acuity - Optics of the Eye
=> Determination of Distance of an Object from the Eye- “Depth Perception”
=> Ophthalmoscope
=> Fluid System of the Eye- Intraocular Fluid

The Eye II Receptor and Neural Function of the Retina

=> Anatomy and Function of the Structural Elements of the Retina

The Eye I Optics of Vision

=> Photochemistry of Eye Vision

The Eye II Receptor and Neural Function of the Retina

=> Rhodopsin Retinal Visual Cycle, and Excitation of the Rods - Photochemistry of Eye Vision
=> Automatic Regulation of Retinal Sensitivity-Light and Dark Adaptation - Photochemistry of Eye Vision
=> Color Vision: Tricolor Mechanism of Color Detection, Color Blindness
=> Neural Circuitry of the Retina - Neural Function of the Retina
=> Ganglion Cells and Optic Nerve Fibers - Neural Function of the Retina
=> Excitation of the Ganglion Cells - Neural Function of the Retina

The Eye III Central Neurophysiology of Vision

=> Visual Pathways
=> Organization and Function of the Visual Cortex
=> Neuronal Patterns of Stimulation During Analysis of the Visual Image
=> Fields of Vision; Perimetry
=> Eye Movements and Their Control
=> Fixation Movements of the Eyes
=> “Fusion” of the Visual Images from the Two Eyes
=> Autonomic Control of Accommodation and Pupillary Aperture
=> Control of Accommodation (Focusing the Eyes)
=> Control of Pupillary Diameter

The Sense of Hearing

=> Tympanic Membrane and the Ossicular System
=> Functional Anatomy of the Cochlea
=> Transmission of Sound Waves in the Cochlea-“Traveling Wave”
=> Function of the Organ of Corti
=> Determination of Sound Frequency- The “Place” Principle - Cochlea
=> Determination of Loudness
=> Auditory Nervous Pathways
=> Function of the Cerebral Cortex in Hearing
=> Determination of the Direction from Which Sound Comes
=> Centrifugal Signals from the Central Nervous System to Lower Auditory Centers
=> Hearing Abnormalities: Types of Deafness

The Chemical Senses Taste and Smell

=> Sense of Taste
=> Primary Sensations of Taste
=> Taste Bud and Its Function
=> Transmission of Taste Signals into the Central Nervous System
=> Taste Preference and Control of the Diet
=> Sense of Smell
=> Olfactory Membrane - Sense of Smell
=> Stimulation of the Olfactory Cells - Sense of Smell
=> Transmission of Smell Signals into the Central Nervous System

Motor Functions of the Spinal Cord the Cord Reflexes

=> Organization of the Spinal Cord for Motor Functions
=> Muscle Sensory Receptors- Muscle Spindles and Golgi Tendon Organs-And Their Roles in Muscle Control
=> Receptor Function of the Muscle Spindle
=> Muscle Stretch Reflex
=> Role of the Muscle Spindle in Voluntary Motor Activity
=> Clinical Applications of the Stretch Reflex
=> Golgi Tendon Reflex
=> Function of the Muscle Spindles and Golgi Tendon Organ
=> Flexor Reflex and the Withdrawal Reflexes
=> Crossed Extensor Reflex
=> Reciprocal Inhibition and Reciprocal Innervation
=> Postural and Locomotive Reflexes of the Cord
=> Scratch Reflex
=> Spinal Cord Reflexes That Cause Muscle Spasm
=> Autonomic Reflexes in the Spinal Cord
=> Spinal Cord Transection and Spinal Shock

Cortical and Brain Stem Control of Motor Function

=> Motor Cortex and Corticospinal Tract
=> Some Specialized Areas of Motor Control Found in the Human Motor Cortex
=> Transmission of Signals from the Motor Cortex to the Muscles
=> Incoming Fiber Pathways to the Motor Cortex
=> Red Nucleus Serves as an Alternative Pathway for Transmitting Cortical Signals to the Spinal Cord
=> “Extrapyramidal” System
=> Excitation of the Spinal Cord Motor Control Areas by the Primary Motor Cortex and Red Nucleus
=> Role of the Brain Stem in Controlling Motor Function
=> Support of the Body Against Gravity- Roles of the Reticular and Vestibular Nuclei
=> Vestibular Apparatus
=> Function of the Utricle and Saccule in the Maintenance of Static Equilibrium
=> Detection of Head Rotation by the Semicircular Ducts
=> Vestibular Mechanisms for Stabilizing the Eyes
=> Other Factors Concerned with Equilibrium - Vestibular Mechanisms
=> Functions of Brain Stem Nuclei in Controlling Subconscious, Stereotyped Movements

Contributions of the Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia to Overall Motor Control

=> Cerebellum and Its Motor Functions
=> Anatomical Functional Areas of the Cerebellum
=> Neuronal Circuit of the Cerebellum
=> Function of the Cerebellum in Overall Motor Control
=> Clinical Abnormalities of the Cerebellum
=> Basal Ganglia-Their Motor Functions
=> Clinical Syndromes Resulting from Damage to the Basal Ganglia
=> Integration of the Many Parts of the Total Motor Control System

Cerebral Cortex Intellectual Functions of the Brain Learning and Memory

=> Physiologic Anatomy of the Cerebral Cortex
=> Functions of Specific Cortical Areas
=> Association Areas - Functions of Specific Cortical Areas
=> Comprehensive Interpretative Function of the Posterior Superior Temporal Lobe-“Wernicke’s Area” (a General Interpretative Area)
=> Functions of the Parieto-occipitotemporal Cortex in the Nondominant Hemisphere
=> Higher Intellectual Functions of the Prefrontal Association Areas
=> Function of the Brain in Communication-Language Input and Language Output
=> Function of the Corpus Callosum and Anterior Commissure
=> Thoughts, Consciousness, and Memory
=> Memory-Roles of Synaptic Facilitation and Synaptic Inhibition
=> Short-Term Memory
=> Intermediate Long-Term Memory
=> Long-Term Memory
=> Consolidation of Memory

Behavioral and Motivational Mechanisms of the Brain The Limbic System and the Hypothalamus

=> Activating-Driving Systems of the Brain
=> Control of Cerebral Activity by Continuous Excitatory Signals from the Brain Stem
=> Neurohormonal Control of Brain Activity
=> Limbic System
=> Functional Anatomy of the Limbic System; Key Position of the Hypothalamus
=> Hypothalamus, a Major Control Headquarters for the Limbic System
=> Vegetative and Endocrine Control Functions of the Hypothalamus
=> Behavioral Functions of the Hypothalamus and Associated Limbic Structures
=> “Reward” and “Punishment” Function of the Limbic System
=> Importance of Reward or Punishment in Behavior
=> Functions of the Hippocampus
=> Functions of the Amygdala
=> Function of the Limbic Cortex

States of Brain Activity Sleep Brain Waves Epilepsy Psychoses

=> Sleep and Two Types of Sleep
=> Slow-Wave Sleep
=> REM Sleep (Paradoxical Sleep, Desynchronized Sleep)
=> Basic Theories of Sleep
=> Physiologic Effects of Sleep
=> Brain Waves
=> Origin of Brain Waves
=> Epilepsy
=> Psychotic Behavior and Dementia-Roles of Specific Neurotransmitter Systems

The Autonomic Nervous System and the Adrenal Medulla

=> General Organization of the Autonomic Nervous System
=> Cholinergic and Adrenergic Fibers- Secretion of Acetylcholine or Norepinephrine
=> Receptors on the Effector Organs
=> Excitatory and Inhibitory Actions of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Stimulation
=> Effects of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Stimulation on Specific Organs
=> Function of the Adrenal Medullae
=> Relation of Stimulus Rate to Degree of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Effect
=> Sympathetic and Parasympathetic “Tone”
=> Denervation Supersensitivity of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Organs After Denervation
=> Stimulation of Discrete Organs in Some Instances and Mass Stimulation
=> Pharmacology of the Autonomic Nervous System

Cerebral Blood Flow Cerebrospinal Fluid and Brain Metabolism

=> Normal Rate of Cerebral Blood Flow
=> Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow
=> Cerebral Microcirculation
=> Cerebral “Stroke” Occurs When Cerebral Blood Vessels Are Blocked
=> Cerebrospinal Fluid System
=> Cushioning Function of the Cerebrospinal Fluid
=> Formation, Flow, and Absorption of Cerebrospinal Fluid
=> Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure
=> Obstruction to Flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid Can Cause Hydrocephalus
=> Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood-Brain Barriers
=> Brain Edema
=> Brain Metabolism

General Principles of Gastrointestinal Function Motility Nervous Control and Blood Circulation

=> General Principles of Gastrointestinal Motility
=> Neural Control of Gastrointestinal Function- Enteric Nervous System
=> Differences Between the Myenteric and Submucosal Plexuses
=> Types of Neurotransmitters Secreted by Enteric Neurons
=> Hormonal Control of Gastrointestinal Motility
=> Functional Types of Movements in the Gastrointestinal Tract
=> Gastrointestinal Blood Flow- “Splanchnic Circulation”
=> Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Blood Supply
=> Effect of Gut Activity and Metabolic Factors on Gastrointestinal Blood Flow
=> Nervous Control of Gastrointestinal Blood Flow

Propulsion and Mixing of Food in the Alimentary Tract

=> Ingestion of Food
=> Motor Functions of the Stomach
=> Stomach Emptying and Regulation of Stomach Emptying
=> Movements of the Small Intestine
=> Mixing Contractions (Segmentation Contractions) - Movements of the Small Intestine
=> Propulsive Movements of the Small Intestine
=> Function of the Ileocecal Valve
=> Movements of the Colon
=> Other Autonomic Reflexes That Affect Bowel Activity

Secretory Functions of the Alimentary Tract

=> General Principles of Alimentary Tract Secretion
=> Anatomical Types of Glands
=> Basic Mechanisms of Stimulation of the Alimentary Tract Glands
=> Basic Mechanism of Secretion by Glandular Cells
=> Lubricating and Protective Properties of Mucus, and Importance of Mucus in the Gastrointestinal Tract
=> Secretion of Saliva
=> Nervous Regulation of Salivary Secretion
=> Esophageal Secretion
=> Characteristics of the Gastric Secretions
=> Pyloric Glands-Secretion of Mucus and Gastrin
=> Surface Mucous Cells
=> Stimulation of Gastric Acid Secretion
=> Regulation of Pepsinogen Secretion and Phases of Gastric Secretion
=> Inhibition of Gastric Secretion by Other Post-Stomach Intestinal Factors
=> Chemical Composition of Gastrin and Other Gastrointestinal Hormones
=> Pancreatic Secretion
=> Pancreatic Digestive Enzymes
=> Secretion of Bicarbonate Ions
=> Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion
=> Secretion of Bile by the Liver; Functions of the Biliary Tree
=> Physiologic Anatomy of Biliary Secretion
=> Function of Bile Salts in Fat Digestion and Absorption
=> Liver Secretion of Cholesterol and Gallstone Formation
=> Secretions of the Small Intestine
=> Secretions of the Large Intestine

Digestion and Absorption in the Gastrointestinal Tract

=> Digestion of the Various Foods by Hydrolysis
=> Digestion of Carbohydrates
=> Digestion of Proteins
=> Digestion of Fats
=> Basic Principles of Gastrointestinal Absorption
=> Absorption in the Small Intestine
=> Absorption of Water in the Small Intestine
=> Absorption of Ions in the Small Intestine
=> Absorption of Nutrients in the Small Intestine
=> Absorption in the Large Intestine: Formation of Feces

Physiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders

=> Disorders of Swallowing and of the Esophagus
=> Disorders of the Stomach
=> Peptic Ulcer - Disorders of the Stomach
=> Specific Causes of Peptic Ulcer in the Human Being
=> Disorders of the Small Intestine
=> Abnormal Digestion of Food in the Small Intestine-Pancreatic Failure
=> Malabsorption by the Small Intestinal Mucosa-Sprue
=> Disorders of the Large Intestine
=> General Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Formation of Adenosine Triphosphate

=> Release of Energy from Foods, and the Concept of “Free Energy”
=> Role of Adenosine Triphosphate in Metabolism
=> Central Role of Glucose in Carbohydrate Metabolism
=> Transport of Glucose Through the Cell Membrane
=> Glycogen Is Stored in Liver and Muscle
=> Release of Energy from the Glucose Molecule by the Glycolytic Pathway
=> Summary of ATP Formation During the Breakdown of Glucose
=> Effect of ATP and ADP Cell Concentrations in Controlling the Rate of Glycolysis
=> Anaerobic Release of Energy- “Anaerobic Glycolysis”
=> Release of Energy from Glucose by the Pentose Phosphate Pathway
=> Formation of Carbohydrates from Proteins and Fats- “Gluconeogenesis”
=> Blood Glucose

Lipid Metabolism

=> Lipid Metabolism
=> Transport of Lipids in the Body Fluids
=> Fat Deposits: Adipose Tissue, Liver Lipids
=> Use of Triglycerides for Energy: Formation of Adenosine Triphosphate
=> Formation of Acetoacetic Acid in the Liver and Its Transport in the Blood
=> Synthesis of Triglycerides from Carbohydrates
=> Synthesis of Triglycerides from Proteins
=> Regulation of Energy Release from Triglycerides
=> Phospholipids
=> Cholesterol
=> Cellular Structural Functions of Phospholipids and Cholesterol- Especially for Membranes
=> Atherosclerosis
=> Basic Causes of Atherosclerosis - The Roles of Cholesterol and Lipoproteins
=> Few Major Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis
=> Prevention of Atherosclerosis

Protein Metabolism

=> Basic Properties of Protein Metabolism: Amino Acids
=> Transport and Storage of Amino Acids
=> Functional Roles of the Plasma Proteins
=> Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids
=> Use of Proteins for Energy
=> Obligatory Degradation of Proteins
=> Hormonal Regulation of Protein Metabolism

The Liver as an Organ

=> Physiologic Anatomy of the Liver
=> Hepatic Vascular and Lymph Systems
=> Metabolic Functions of the Liver
=> Measurement of Bilirubin in the Bile as a Clinical Diagnostic Tool
=> Jaundice-Excess Bilirubin in the Extracellular Fluid

Dietary Balances Regulation of Feeding Obesity and Starvation Vitamins and Minerals

=> Energy Intake and Output Are Balanced Under Steady- State Conditions
=> Dietary Balances: Energy Available in Foods
=> Methods for Determining Metabolic Utilization of Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Fats
=> Regulation of Food Intake and Energy Storage
=> Neural Centers Regulate Food Intake
=> Factors That Regulate Quantity of Food Intake
=> Obesity
=> Decreased Physical Activity and Abnormal Feeding Regulation as Causes of Obesity
=> Treatment of Obesity
=> Inanition, Anorexia, and Cachexia
=> Starvation
=> Vitamins
=> Vitamin A
=> Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
=> Niacin
=> Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
=> Vitamin B12
=> Folic Acid (Pteroylglutamic Acid)
=> Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
=> Pantothenic Acid
=> Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
=> Vitamin D
=> Vitamin E
=> Vitamin K
=> Mineral Metabolism

Energetics and Metabolic Rate

=> Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Functions as an “Energy Currency” in Metabolism
=> Phosphocreatine Functions as an Accessory Storage Depot for Energy and as an “ATP Buffer”
=> Anaerobic Versus Aerobic Energy
=> Summary of Energy Utilization by the Cells
=> Control of Energy Release in the Cell
=> Metabolic Rate
=> Measurement of the Whole-Body Metabolic Rate
=> Energy Metabolism-Factors That Influence Energy Output
=> Overall Energy Requirements for Daily Activities
=> Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)- The Minimum Energy Expenditure for the Body to Exist
=> Energy Used for Physical Activities

Body Temperature Temperature Regulation and Fever

=> Normal Body Temperatures
=> Body Temperature Is Controlled by Balancing Heat Production Against Heat Loss
=> Regulation of Body Temperature-Role of the Hypothalamus
=> Neuronal Effector Mechanisms That Decrease or Increase Body Temperature
=> Concept of a “Set-Point” for Temperature Control
=> Behavioral Control of Body Temperature
=> Abnormalities of Body Temperature Regulation
=> Exposure of the Body to Extreme Cold

Introduction to Endocrinology

=> Coordination of Body Functions by Chemical Messengers
=> Chemical Structure and Synthesis of Hormones
=> Hormone Secretion, Transport, and Clearance from the Blood
=> Hormone Receptors and Their Activation
=> Intracellular Signaling After Hormone Receptor Activation
=> Second Messenger Mechanisms for Mediating Intracellular Hormonal Functions
=> Hormones That Act Mainly on the Genetic Machinery of the Cell
=> Measurement of Hormone Concentrations in the Blood

Pituitary Hormones and Their Control by the Hypothalamus

=> Pituitary Gland and Its Relation to the Hypothalamus
=> Hypothalamus Controls Pituitary Secretion
=> Physiological Functions of Growth Hormone
=> Growth Hormone Promotes Growth of Many Body Tissues
=> Growth Hormone Has Several Metabolic Effects
=> Growth Hormone Stimulates Cartilage and Bone Growth
=> Growth Hormone Exerts Much of Its Effect Through Intermediate Substances Called “Somatomedins”
=> Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion
=> Abnormalities of Growth Hormone Secretion
=> Posterior Pituitary Gland and Its Relation to the Hypothalamus
=> Physiological Functions of ADH
=> Oxytocic Hormone

Thyroid Metabolic Hormones

=> Thyroid Metabolic Hormones
=> Synthesis and Secretion of the Thyroid Metabolic Hormones
=> Physiologic Functions of the Thyroid Hormones
=> Thyroid Hormones Increase the Transcription of Large Numbers of Genes
=> Thyroid Hormones Increase Cellular Metabolic Activity
=> Effect of Thyroid Hormone on Growth
=> Effects of Thyroid Hormone on Specific Bodily Mechanisms
=> Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Secretion
=> Diseases of the Thyroid
=> Hyperthyroidism
=> Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
=> Hypothyroidism
=> Cretinism

Adrenocortical Hormones

=> Adrenocortical Hormones
=> Synthesis and Secretion of Adrenocortical Hormones
=> Functions of the Mineralocorticoids- Aldosterone
=> Renal and Circulatory Effects of Aldosterone
=> Aldosterone Stimulates Sodium and Potassium Transport
=> Cellular Mechanism of Aldosterone Action
=> Possible Nongenomic Actions of Aldosterone and Other Steroid Hormones
=> Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion
=> Functions of the Glucocorticoids
=> Effects of Cortisol on Carbohydrate Metabolism
=> Effects of Cortisol on Protein Metabolism
=> Effects of Cortisol on Fat Metabolism
=> Cortisol is Important in Resisting Stress and Inflammation
=> Other Effects of Cortisol
=> Cellular Mechanism of Cortisol Action
=> Regulation of Cortisol Secretion by Adrenocorticotropic Hormone from the Pituitary Gland
=> Adrenal Androgens
=> Abnormalities of Adrenocortical Secretion
=> Hypoadrenalism-Addison’s Disease
=> Hyperadrenalism-Cushing’s Syndrome
=> Primary Aldosteronism (Conn’s Syndrome)
=> Adrenogenital Syndrome

Insulin Glucagon and Diabetes Mellitus

=> Insulin and Its Metabolic Effects
=> Effect of Insulin on Carbohydrate Metabolism
=> Effect of Insulin on Fat Metabolism
=> Effect of Insulin on Protein Metabolism and on Growth
=> Mechanisms of Insulin Secretion
=> Control of Insulin Secretion
=> Other Factors That Stimulate Insulin Secretion
=> Role of Insulin (and Other Hormones) in “Switching” Between Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism
=> Glucagon and Its Functions
=> Somatostatin Inhibits Glucagon and Insulin Secretion
=> Summary of Blood Glucose Regulation
=> Diabetes Mellitus
=> Type I Diabetes-Lack of Insulin Production by Beta Cells of the Pancreas
=> Type II Diabetes-Resistance to the Metabolic Effects of Insulin
=> Physiology of Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus
=> Treatment of Diabetes
=> Insulinoma-Hyperinsulinism

Parathyroid Hormone Calcitonin Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism Vitamin D Bone and Teeth

=> Overview of Calcium and Phosphate Regulation in the Extracellular Fluid and Plasma
=> Bone and Its Relation to Extracellular Calcium and Phosphate
=> Precipitation and Absorption of Calcium and Phosphate in Bone-Equilibrium with the Extracellular Fluids
=> Calcium Exchange Between Bone and Extracellular Fluid
=> Deposition and Absorption of Bone-Remodeling of Bone
=> Vitamin D and Actions of Vitamin D
=> Parathyroid Hormone
=> Effect of Parathyroid Hormone on Calcium and Phosphate Concentrations in the Extracellular Fluid
=> Control of Parathyroid Secretion by Calcium Ion Concentration
=> Calcitonin
=> Summary of Control of Calcium Ion Concentration
=> Hypoparathyroidism
=> Primary Hyperparathyroidism
=> Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
=> Rickets-Vitamin D Deficiency
=> Osteoporosis-Decreased Bone Matrix
=> Physiology of the Teeth
=> Function of the Different Parts of the Teeth
=> Dentition
=> Mineral Exchange in Teeth
=> Dental Abnormalities

Reproductive and Hormonal Functions of the Male and Function of the Pineal Gland

=> Physiologic Anatomy of the Male Sexual Organs
=> Spermatogenesis
=> Steps of Spermatogenesis
=> Function of the Seminal Vesicles
=> Function of the Prostate Gland
=> Semen
=> Abnormal Spermatogenesis and Male Fertility
=> Neuronal Stimulus for Performance of the Male Sexual Act
=> Stages of the Male Sexual Act
=> Secretion, Metabolism, and Chemistry of the Male Sex Hormone
=> Functions of Testosterone
=> Basic Intracellular Mechanism of Action of Testosterone
=> Control of Male Sexual Functions by Hormones from the Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary Gland
=> Abnormalities of Male Sexual Function
=> Prostate Gland and Its Abnormalities
=> Hypogonadism in the Male
=> Testicular Tumors and Hypergonadism in the Male
=> Pineal Gland-Its Function in Controlling Seasonal Fertility in Some Animals

Female Physiology Before Pregnancy and Female Hormones

=> Physiologic Anatomy of the Female Sexual Organs
=> Female Hormonal System
=> Monthly Ovarian Cycle; Function of the Gonadotropic Hormones
=> Gonadotropic Hormones and Their Effects on the Ovaries
=> Ovarian Follicle Growth- “Follicular” Phase of the Ovarian Cycle
=> Corpus Luteum-“Luteal” Phase of the Ovarian Cycle
=> Functions of the Ovarian Hormones-Estradiol and Progesterone
=> Chemistry of the Sex Hormones
=> Functions of the Estrogens- Their Effects on the Primary and Secondary Female Sex Characteristics
=> Functions of Progesterone
=> Monthly Endometrial Cycle and Menstruation
=> Regulation of the Female Monthly Rhythm-Interplay Between the Ovarian and Hypothalamic-Pituitary Hormones
=> Feedback Oscillation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian System
=> Puberty and Menarche
=> Menopause
=> Abnormalities of Secretion by the Ovaries
=> Female Sexual Act
=> Female Fertility

Pregnancy and Lactation

=> Maturation and Fertilization of the Ovum
=> Early Nutrition of the Embryo
=> Function of the Placenta: Developmental and Physiologic Anatomy of the Placenta
=> Hormonal Factors in Pregnancy
=> Response of the Mother’s Body to Pregnancy
=> Changes in the Maternal Circulatory System During Pregnancy
=> Increased Uterine Excitability Near Term - Parturition
=> Onset of Labor-A Positive Feedback Mechanism for Its Initiation - Parturition
=> Abdominal Muscle Contractions During Labor
=> Mechanics of Parturition
=> Separation and Delivery of the Placenta
=> Labor Pains
=> Involution of the Uterus After Parturition
=> Parturition
=> Lactation
=> Development of the Breasts - Lactation
=> Initiation of Lactation-Function of Prolactin
=> Ejection (or “Let-Down”) Process in Milk Secretion-Function of Oxytocin
=> Milk Composition and the Metabolic Drain on the Mother Caused by Lactation

Fetal and Neonatal Physiology

=> Growth and Functional Development of the Fetus
=> Adjustments of the Infant to Extrauterine Life
=> Onset of Breathing - Adjustments of the Infant to Extrauterine Life
=> Circulatory Readjustments at Birth - Adjustments of the Infant to Extrauterine Life
=> Nutrition of the Neonate - Adjustments of the Infant to Extrauterine Life
=> Special Functional Problems in the Neonate
=> Special Problemsof Prematurity
=> Growth and Development of the Child

Sports Physiology

=> Sports Physiology
=> Muscles in Exercise: Strength, Power, and Endurance of Muscles
=> Muscle Metabolic Systems in Exercise
=> Phosphocreatine-Creatine System - Muscles in Exercise
=> Nutrients Used During Muscle Activity - Muscles in Exercise
=> Effect of Athletic Training on Muscles and Muscle Performance
=> Respiration in Exercise
=> Cardiovascular System in Exercise
=> Body Heat in Exercise
=> Body Fluids and Salt in Exercise
=> Drugs and Athletes
=> Body Fitness Prolongs Life

Privacy Policy, Terms and Conditions, DMCA Policy and Compliant, Contact

Copyright © 2018-2023; All Rights Reserved. Developed by Therithal info, Chennai.