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Chapter: Medical Physiology: Thyroid Metabolic Hormones

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Thyroid Metabolic Hormones

The thyroid gland, located immediately below the larynx on each side of and anterior to the trachea, is one of the largest of the endocrine glands, normally weighing 15 to 20 grams in adults.

Thyroid Metabolic Hormones

The thyroid gland, located immediately below the larynx on each side of and anterior to the trachea, is one of the largest of the endocrine glands, normally weighing 15 to 20 grams in adults. The thyroid secretes two major hormones, thyroxine andtriiodothyronine, commonly called T4and T3, respec-tively. Both of these hormones profoundly increase the metabolic rate of the body. Complete lack of thyroid secretion usually causes the basal metabolic rate to fall 40 to 50 per cent below normal, and extreme excesses of thyroid secretion can increase the basal metabolic rate to 60 to 100 per cent above normal. Thyroid secretion is con-trolled primarily by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted by the ante-rior pituitary gland.



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