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Medical Physiology
-:- Functional Organization of the Human Body and Control of the “Internal Environment”
-:- Cells as the Living Units of the Body
-:- Extracellular Fluid-The “Internal Environment”
-:- “Homeostatic” Mechanisms of the Major Functional Systems
-:- Control Systems of the Body
-:- Examples of Control Mechanisms of the Body
-:- Characteristics of Control Systems of the Body
-:- Organization of the Cell
-:- Physical Structure of the Cell
-:- Membranous Structures of the Cell
-:- Cytoplasm and Its Organelles - Physical Structure of the Cell
-:- Nucleus and Nuclear Membrane - Physical Structure of the Cell
-:- Nucleoli and Formation of Ribosomes
-:- Comparison of the Animal Cell with Precellular Forms of Life
-:- Functional Systems of the Cell
-:- Ingestion by the Cell - Endocytosis - Functional Systems of the Cell
-:- Digestion of Pinocytotic and Phagocytic Foreign Substances Inside the Cell - Function of the Lysosomes
-:- Synthesis and Formation of Cellular Structures by Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Apparatus
-:- Extraction of Energy from Nutrients - Function of the Mitochondria
-:- Locomotion of Cells
-:- Ameboid Movement
-:- Cilia and Ciliary Movements
-:- Genes in the Cell Nucleus
-:- DNA Code in the Cell Nucleus Is Transferred to an RNA Code in the Cell Cytoplasm - The Process of Transcription
-:- Synthesis of Other Substances in the Cell
-:- Control of Gene Function and Biochemical Activity in Cells
-:- The DNA-Genetic System Also Controls Cell Reproduction
-:- Cell Differentiation
-:- Apoptosis-Programmed Cell Death
-:- Cancer
-:- The Lipid Barrier of the Cell Membrane, and Cell Membrane Transport Proteins
-:- Diffusion
-:- Diffusion Through the Cell Membrane
-:- Diffusion Through Protein Channels, and “Gating” of These Channels
-:- Facilitated Diffusion
-:- Factors That Affect Net Rate of Diffusion
-:- Osmosis Across Selectively Permeable Membranes - “Net Diffusion” of Water
-:- “Active Transport” of Substances Through Membranes
-:- Primary Active Transport
-:- Secondary Active Transport - Co-Transport and Counter-Transport
-:- Active Transport Through Cellular Sheets
-:- Basic Physics of Membrane Potentials
-:- Measuring the Membrane Potential
-:- Resting Membrane Potential of Nerves
-:- Nerve Action Potential
-:- Roles of Other Ions During the Action Potential
-:- Propagation of the Action Potential
-:- Re-establishing Sodium and Potassium Ionic Gradients After Action Potentials Are Completed
-:- Plateau in Some Action Potentials
-:- Rhythmicity of Some Excitable Tissues-Repetitive Discharge
-:- Special Characteristics of Signal Transmission in Nerve Trunks
-:- Excitation-The Process of Eliciting the Action Potential
-:- Recording Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials
-:- Physiologic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
-:- General Mechanism of Muscle Contraction
-:- Molecular Mechanism of Muscle Contraction
-:- Molecular Characteristics of the Contractile Filaments
-:- Effect of Amount of Actin and Myosin Filament Overlap on Tension Developed by the Contracting Muscle
-:- Relation of Velocity of Contraction to Load
-:- Energetics of Muscle Contraction
-:- Characteristics of Whole Muscle Contraction
-:- Mechanics of Skeletal Muscle Contraction
-:- Remodeling of Muscle to Match Function
-:- Rigor Mortis
-:- Transmission of Impulses from Nerve Endings to Skeletal Muscle Fibers: The Neuromuscular Junction
-:- Secretion of Acetylcholine by the Nerve Terminals
-:- Molecular Biology of Acetylcholine Formation and Release
-:- Drugs That Enhance or Block Transmission at the Neuromuscular Junction
-:- Myasthenia Gravis
-:- Muscle Action Potential
-:- Excitation-Contraction Coupling
-:- Contraction of Smooth Muscle
-:- Types of Smooth Muscle
-:- Contractile Mechanism in Smooth Muscle
-:- Regulation of Contraction of Smooth Muscle by Calcium Ions
-:- Nervous and Hormonal Control of Smooth Muscle Contraction
-:- Neuromuscular Junctions of Smooth Muscle
-:- Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials in Smooth Muscle
-:- Effect of Local Tissue Factors and Hormones to Cause Smooth Muscle Contraction Without Action Potentials
-:- Source of Calcium Ions That Cause Contraction (1) Through the Cell Membrane and (2) from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
-:- Physiology of Cardiac Muscle
-:- Physiologic Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle
-:- Action Potentials in Cardiac Muscle
-:- The Cardiac Cycle
-:- Diastole and Systole
-:- Relationship of the Electrocardiogram to the Cardiac Cycle
-:- Function of the Atria as Primer Pumps
-:- Function of the Ventricles as Pumps
-:- Function of the Valves
-:- Aortic Pressure Curve
-:- Relationship of the Heart Sounds to Heart Pumping
-:- Work Output of the Heart: Graphical Analysis of Ventricular Pumping
-:- Chemical Energy Required for Cardiac Contraction: Oxygen Utilization by the Heart
-:- Regulation of Heart Pumping
-:- Specialized Excitatory and Conductive System of the Heart
-:- Sinus (Sinoatrial) Node
-:- Internodal Pathways and Transmission of the Cardiac Impulse Through the Atria
-:- Atrioventricular Node, and Delay of Impulse Conduction from the Atria to the Ventricles
-:- Rapid Transmission in the Ventricular Purkinje System
-:- Transmission of the Cardiac Impulse in the Ventricular Muscle
-:- Control of Excitation and Conduction in the Heart
-:- The Sinus Node as the Pacemaker of the Heart
-:- Role of the Purkinje System in Causing Synchronous Contraction of the Ventricular Muscle
-:- Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nerves
-:- Characteristics of the Normal Electrocardiogram
-:- Methods for Recording Electrocardiograms
-:- Flow of Current Around the Heart During the Cardiac Cycle
-:- Electrocardiographic Leads: Three Bipolar Limb Leads, Chest Leads (Precordial Leads), Augmented Unipolar Limb Leads
-:- Principles of Vectorial Analysis of Electrocardiograms
-:- Vectorial Analysis of the Normal Electrocardiogram
-:- Mean Electrical Axis of the Ventricular QRS - And Its Significance
-:- Conditions That Cause Abnormal Voltages of the QRS Complex
-:- Prolonged and Bizarre Patterns of the QRS Complex - Electrocardiographic
-:- Current of Injury - Electrocardiographic Interpretation of Cardiac
-:- Abnormalities in the T Wave - Electrocardiographic Interpretation of Cardiac Muscle and Coronary Blood Flow Abnormalities
-:- Cardiac Arrhythmias and Their Electrocardiographic Interpretation
-:- Abnormal Sinus Rhythms
-:- Tachycardia - Abnormal Sinus Rhythms
-:- Bradycardia - Abnormal Sinus Rhythms
-:- Sinus Arrhythmia - Abnormal Sinus Rhythms
-:- Abnormal Rhythms That Result from Block of Heart Signals Within the Intracardiac Conduction Pathways
-:- Premature Contractions
-:- Paroxysmal Tachycardia
-:- Atrial Paroxysmal Tachycardia
-:- Ventricular Paroxysmal Tachycardia
-:- Ventricular Fibrillation
-:- Atrial Fibrillation
-:- Atrial Flutter
-:- Cardiac Arrest
-:- Physical Characteristics of the Circulation
-:- Basic Theory of Circulatory Function
-:- Interrelationships Among Pressure, Flow, and Resistance
-:- Blood Flow
-:- Blood Pressure
-:- Resistance to Blood Flow
-:- Effects of Pressure on Vascular Resistance and Tissue Blood Flow
-:- Vascular Distensibility
-:- Arterial Pressure Pulsations
-:- Veins and Their Functions
-:- Venous Pressures-Right Atrial Pressure (Central Venous Pressure) and Peripheral Venous Pressures
-:- Blood Reservoir Function of the Veins
-:- Structure of the Microcirculation and Capillary System
-:- Flow of Blood in the Capillaries-Vasomotion
-:- Exchange of Water, Nutrients, and Other Substances Between the Blood and Interstitial Fluid
-:- The Interstitium and Interstitial Fluid
-:- Fluid Filtration Across Capillaries Is Determined by Hydrostatic and Colloid Osmotic Pressures, and Capillary Filtration Coefficient
-:- Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure
-:- Interstitial Fluid Hydrostatic Pressure
-:- Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure
-:- Interstitial Fluid Colloid Osmotic Pressure
-:- Exchange of Fluid Volume Through the Capillary Membrane
-:- Starling Equilibrium for Capillary Exchange
-:- Lymphatic System
-:- Lymph Channels of the Body
-:- Formation of Lymph
-:- Rate of Lymph Flow
-:- Local Control of Blood Flow in Response to Tissue Needs
-:- Mechanisms of Blood Flow Control
-:- Acute Control of Local Blood Flow - Mechanisms of Blood Flow Control
-:- Long-Term Blood Flow Regulation - Mechanisms of Blood Flow Control
-:- Development of Collateral Circulation-A Phenomenon of Long- Term Local Blood Flow Regulation
-:- Humoral Control of the Circulation
-:- Vascular Control by Ions and Other Chemical Factors
-:- Nervous Regulation of the Circulation
-:- Role of the Nervous System in Rapid Control of Arterial Pressure
-:- Increase in Arterial Pressure During Muscle Exercise and Other Types of Stress
-:- Reflex Mechanisms for Maintaining Normal Arterial Pressure
-:- Central Nervous System Ischemic Response
-:- Special Features of Nervous Control of Arterial Pressure
-:- Renal-Body Fluid System for Arterial Pressure Control
-:- Quantitation of Pressure Diuresis as a Basis for Arterial Pressure Control
-:- Chronic Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Is Caused by Impaired Renal Fluid Excretion
-:- The Renin-Angiotensin System: Its Role in Pressure Control and in Hypertension
-:- Components of the Renin-Angiotensin System
-:- Types of Hypertension in Which Angiotensin Is Involved
-:- Other Types of Hypertension Caused by Combinations of Volume Loading and Vasoconstriction
-:- “Primary (Essential) Hypertension”
-:- Summary of the Integrated, Multifaceted System for Arterial Pressure Regulation
-:- Normal Values for Cardiac Output at Rest and During Activity
-:- Control of Cardiac Output by Venous Return-Role of the Frank-Starling Mechanism of the Heart
-:- The Heart Has Limits for the Cardiac Output That It Can Achieve
-:- What Is the Role of the Nervous System in Controlling Cardiac Output?
-:- Pathologically High and Pathologically Low Cardiac Outputs
-:- High Cardiac Output Caused by Reduced Total Peripheral Resistance
-:- Low Cardiac Output
-:- A More Quantitative Analysis of Cardiac Output Regulation
-:- Cardiac Output Curves Used in the Quantitative Analysis
-:- Venous Return Curves
-:- Analysis of Cardiac Output and Right Atrial Pressure, Using Simultaneous Cardiac Output and Venous Return Curves
-:- Methods for Measuring Cardiac Output
-:- Blood Flow in Skeletal Muscle and Blood Flow Regulation During Exercise
-:- Rate of Blood Flow Through the Muscles
-:- Control of Blood Flow Through the Skeletal Muscles
-:- Total Body Circulatory Readjustments During Exercise
-:- Coronary Circulation
-:- Physiologic Anatomy of the Coronary Blood Supply
-:- Normal Coronary Blood Flow
-:- Control of Coronary Blood Flow
-:- Special Features of Cardiac Muscle Metabolism
-:- Ischemic Heart Disease
-:- Causes of Death After Acute Coronary Occlusion
-:- Stages of Recovery from Acute Myocardial Infarction
-:- Function of the Heart After Recovery from Myocardial Infarction
-:- Pain in Coronary Heart Disease
-:- Surgical Treatment of Coronary Disease
-:- Acute Effects of Moderate Cardiac Failure
-:- Chronic Stage of Failure-Fluid Retention Helps to Compensate Cardiac Output
-:- Summary of the Changes That Occur After Acute Cardiac Failure- “Compensated Heart Failure”
-:- Dynamics of Severe Cardiac Failure- Decompensated Heart Failure
-:- Unilateral Left Heart Failure
-:- Low-Output Cardiac Failure- Cardiogenic Shock
-:- Edema in Patients with Cardiac Failure
-:- Cardiac Reserve
-:- Quantitative Graphical Method for Analysis of Cardiac Failure
-:- Normal Heart Sounds
-:- Valvular Lesions - Heart Sounds
-:- Abnormal Circulatory Dynamics in Valvular Heart Disease
-:- Abnormal Circulatory Dynamics in Congenital Heart Defects
-:- Use of Extracorporeal Circulation During Cardiac Surgery
-:- Hypertrophy of the Heart in Valvular and Congenital Heart Disease
-:- Physiologic Causes of Shock
-:- Shock Caused by Hypovolemia-Hemorrhagic Shock
-:- Relationship of Bleeding Volume to Cardiac Output and Arterial Pressure
-:- Progressive and Nonprogressive Hemorrhagic Shock
-:- Irreversible Shock
-:- Hypovolemic Shock Caused by Plasma Loss
-:- Hypovolemic Shock Caused by Trauma
-:- Neurogenic Shock-Increased Vascular Capacity
-:- Anaphylactic Shock and Histamine Shock
-:- Septic Shock
-:- Physiology of Treatment in Shock
-:- Circulatory Arrest
-:- Effect of Circulatory Arrest on the Brain
-:- Fluid Intake and Output Are Balanced During Steady-State Conditions
-:- Daily Intake of Water
-:- Daily Loss of Body Water
-:- Body Fluid Compartments
-:- Blood Volume
-:- Constituents of Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids
-:- Measurement of Fluid Volumes in the Different Body Fluid Compartments-The Indicator-Dilution Principle
-:- Determination of Volumes of Specific Body Fluid Compartments
-:- Regulation of Fluid Exchange and Osmotic Equilibrium Between Intracellular and Extracellular Fluid
-:- Basic Principles of Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
-:- Osmotic Equilibrium Is Maintained Between Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids
-:- Volume and Osmolality of Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids in Abnormal States
-:- Effect of Adding Saline Solution to the Extracellular Fluid
-:- Glucose and Other Solutions Administered for Nutritive Purposes
-:- Clinical Abnormalities of Fluid Volume Regulation: Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia
-:- Edema: Excess Fluid in the Tissues
-:- Intracellular Edema
-:- Extracellular Edema
-:- Summary of Causes of Extracellular Edema
-:- Safety Factors That Normally Prevent Edema
-:- Fluids in the “Potential Spaces” of the Body
-:- Multiple Functions of the Kidneys in Homeostasis
-:- Physiologic Anatomy of the Kidneys
-:- General Organization of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract
-:- Renal Blood Supply
-:- The Nephron Is the Functional Unit of the Kidney
-:- Micturition
-:- Physiologic Anatomy and Nervous Connections of the Bladder
-:- Transport of Urine from the Kidney Through the Ureters and into the Bladder
-:- Filling of the Bladder and Bladder Wall Tone; the Cystometrogram
-:- Micturition Reflex
-:- Abnormalities of Micturition
-:- Urine Formation Results from Glomerular Filtration, Tubular Reabsorption, and Tubular Secretion
-:- Glomerular Filtration-The First Step in Urine Formation
-:- Determinants of the GFR
-:- Renal Blood Flow
-:- Physiologic Control of Glomerular Filtration and Renal Blood Flow
-:- Autoregulation of GFR and Renal Blood Flow
-:- Reabsorption and Secretion by the Renal Tubules
-:- Tubular Reabsorption Includes Passive and Active Mechanisms
-:- Active Transport - Tubular Reabsorption Includes Passive and Active Mechanisms
-:- Passive Water Reabsorption by Osmosis Is Coupled Mainly to Sodium Reabsorption
-:- Reabsorption of Chloride, Urea, and Other Solutes by Passive Diffusion
-:- Reabsorption and Secretion Along Different Parts of the Nephron
-:- Proximal Tubular Reabsorption
-:- Solute and Water Transport in the Loop of Henle
-:- Distal Tubule
-:- Late Distal Tubule and Cortical Collecting Tubule
-:- Medullary Collecting Duct
-:- Regulation of Tubular Reabsorption
-:- Use of Clearance Methods to Quantify Kidney Function
-:- Kidneys Excrete Excess Water by Forming a Dilute Urine
-:- Kidneys Conserve Water by Excreting a Concentrated Urine
-:- Obligatory Urine Volume
-:- Requirements for Excreting a Concentrated Urine-High ADH Levels and Hyperosmotic Renal Medulla
-:- Countercurrent Mechanism Produces a Hyperosmotic Renal Medullary Interstitium
-:- Role of Distal Tubule and Collecting Ducts in Excreting a Concentrated Urine
-:- Urea Contributes to Hyperosmotic Renal Medullary Interstitium and to a Concentrated Urine
-:- Countercurrent Exchange in the Vasa Recta Preserves Hyperosmolarity of the Renal Medulla
-:- Quantifying Renal Urine Concentration and Dilution: “Free Water” and Osmolar Clearances
-:- Disorders of Urinary Concentrating Ability
-:- Control of Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
-:- Osmoreceptor-ADH Feedback System
-:- Role of Thirst in Controlling Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
-:- Salt-Appetite Mechanism for Controlling Extracellular Fluid Sodium Concentration and Volume
-:- Regulation of Potassium Excretion and Potassium Concentration in Extracellular Fluid
-:- Regulation of Internal Potassium Distribution
-:- Overview of Renal Potassium Excretion
-:- Potassium Secretion by Principal Cells of Late Distal and Cortical Collecting Tubules
-:- Summary of Factors That Regulate Potassium Secretion
-:- Control of Renal Calcium Excretion and Extracellular Calcium Ion Concentration
-:- Control of Renal Magnesium Excretion and Extracellular Magnesium Ion Concentration
-:- Integration of Renal Mechanisms for Control of Extracellular Fluid
-:- Importance of Pressure Natriuresis and Pressure Diuresis in Maintaining Body Sodium and Fluid Balance
-:- Distribution of Extracellular Fluid Between the Interstitial Spaces and Vascular System
-:- Nervous and Hormonal Factors Increase the Effectiveness of Renal-Body Fluid Feedback Control
-:- Role of Angiotensin II In Controlling Renal Excretion
-:- Role of Aldosterone in Controlling Renal Excretion
-:- Role of ADH in Controlling Renal Water Excretion
-:- Role of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Controlling Renal Excretion
-:- Integrated Responses to Changes in Sodium Intake
-:- Conditions That Cause Large Increases in Blood Volume and Extracellular Fluid Volume
-:- Conditions That Cause Large Increases in Extracellular Fluid Volume but with Normal Blood Volume
-:- Regulation of Acid-Base Balance
-:- Hydrogen Ion Concentration Is Precisely Regulated
-:- Acids and Bases-Their Definitions and Meanings
-:- Defenses Against Changes in Hydrogen Ion Concentration: Buffers, Lungs, and Kidneys
-:- Buffering of Hydrogen Ions in the Body Fluids
-:- Bicarbonate Buffer System
-:- Quantitative Dynamics of the Bicarbonate Buffer System
-:- Phosphate Buffer System
-:- Proteins: Important Intracellular Buffers
-:- Respiratory Regulation of Acid-Base Balance
-:- Renal Control of Acid-Base Balance
-:- Secretion of Hydrogen Ions and Reabsorption of Bicarbonate Ions by the Renal Tubules
-:- Combination of Excess Hydrogen Ions with Phosphate and Ammonia Buffers in the Tubule-A Mechanism for Generating “New” Bicarbonate Ions
-:- Quantifying Renal Acid-Base Excretion
-:- Regulation of Renal Tubular Hydrogen Ion Secretion
-:- Acidosis Decreases the Ratio of HCO3-/H+ in Renal Tubular Fluid
-:- Alkalosis Increases the Ratio of HCO3-/H+ in Renal Tubular Fluid
-:- Clinical Causes of Acid-Base Disorders
-:- Treatment of Acidosis or Alkalosis
-:- Clinical Measurements and Analysis of Acid-Base Disorders
-:- Complex Acid-Base Disorders and Use of the Acid-Base Nomogram for Diagnosis
-:- Use of Anion Gap to Diagnose Acid-Base Disorders
-:- Diuretics and Their Mechanisms of Action
-:- Kidney Diseases
-:- Acute Renal Failure
-:- Prerenal Acute Renal Failure Caused by Decreased Blood Flow to the Kidney
-:- Intrarenal Acute Renal Failure Caused by Abnormalities Within the Kidney
-:- Postrenal Acute Renal Failure Caused by Abnormalities of the Lower Urinary Tract
-:- Physiologic Effects of Acute Renal Failure
-:- Chronic Renal Failure: An Irreversible Decrease in the Number of Functional Nephrons
-:- Vicious Circle of Chronic Renal Failure Leading to End-Stage Renal Disease
-:- Injury to the Renal Vasculature as a Cause of Chronic Renal Failure
-:- Injury to the Glomeruli as a Cause of Chronic Renal Failure- lomerulonephritis
-:- Injury to the Renal Interstitium as a Cause of Chronic Renal Failure- Pyelonephritis
-:- Nephrotic Syndrome-Excretion of Protein in the Urine Because of Increased Glomerular Permeability
-:- Nephron Function in Chronic Renal Failure
-:- Effects of Renal Failure on the Body Fluids-Uremia
-:- Hypertension and Kidney Disease
-:- Specific Tubular Disorders
-:- Treatment of Renal Failure by Dialysis with an Artificial Kidney
-:- Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
-:- Formation of Hemoglobin
-:- Iron Metabolism - Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
-:- Life Span and Destruction of Red Blood Cells
-:- Anemias
-:- Effects of Anemia on Function of the Circulatory System
-:- Polycythemia
-:- Effect of Polycythemia on Function of the Circulatory System
-:- Leukocytes (White Blood Cells)
-:- General Characteristics of Leukocytes
-:- Genesis of the White Blood Cells
-:- Life Span of the White Blood Cells
-:- Neutrophils and Macrophages Defend Against Infections
-:- Phagocytosis
-:- Monocyte-Macrophage Cell System (Reticuloendothelial System)
-:- Inflammation: Role of Neutrophils and Macrophages
-:- Eosinophils
-:- Basophils
-:- Leukopenia
-:- Leukemias and Effects of Leukemia on the Body
-:- Innate Immunity
-:- Acquired (Adaptive) Immunity
-:- Lymphocytes Are Responsible for Acquired Immunity
-:- Preprocessing of the T and B Lymphocytes
-:- T Lymphocytes and B-Lymphocyte Antibodies React Highly Specifically Against Specific Antigens
-:- Origin of the Many Clones of Lymphocytes
-:- Specific Attributes of the B-Lymphocyte System - Humoral Immunity and the Antibodies
-:- Special Attributes of the T-Lymphocyte System - Activated T Cells and Cell-Mediated Immunity
-:- Several Types of T Cells and Their Different Functions
-:- Tolerance of the Acquired Immunity System to One’s Own Tissues - Role of Preprocessing in the Thymus and Bone Marrow
-:- Immunization by Injection of Antigens
-:- Passive Immunity
-:- Allergy and Hypersensitivity
-:- Allergies in the “Allergic” Person, Who Has Excess IgE Antibodies
-:- Antigenicity Causes Immune Reactions of Blood
-:- O-A-B Blood Types
-:- Rh Blood Types
-:- Rh Immune Response
-:- Transfusion Reactions Resulting from Mismatched Blood Types
-:- Transplantation of Tissues and Organs
-:- Events in Hemostasis
-:- Mechanism of Blood Coagulation
-:- Conversion of Prothrombin to Thrombin
-:- Conversion of Fibrinogen to Fibrin- Formation of the Clot
-:- Vicious Circle of Clot Formation - Mechanism of Blood Coagulation
-:- Initiation of Coagulation: Formation of Prothrombin Activator
-:- Prevention of Blood Clotting in the Normal Vascular System- Intravascular Anticoagulants
-:- Lysis of Blood Clots- Plasmin
-:- Conditions That Cause Excessive Bleeding in Human Beings
-:- Thromboembolic Conditions in the Human Being
-:- Anticoagulants for Clinical Use
-:- Blood Coagulation Tests
-:- Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation
-:- Muscles That Cause Lung Expansion and Contraction
-:- Movement of Air In and Out of the Lungs and the Pressures That Cause the Movement
-:- Effect of the Thoracic Cage on Lung Expansibility
-:- Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities
-:- Minute Respiratory Volume Equals Respiratory Rate Times Tidal Volume
-:- Alveolar Ventilation
-:- Functions of the Respiratory Passageways
-:- Normal Respiratory Functions of the Nose
-:- Vocalization - Functions of the Respiratory Passageways
-:- Physiologic Anatomy of the Pulmonary Circulatory System
-:- Pressures in the Pulmonary System
-:- Blood Flow Through the Lungs and Its Distribution
-:- Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure Gradients in the Lungs on Regional Pulmonary Blood Flow
-:- Pulmonary Capillary Dynamics
-:- Capillary Exchange of Fluid in the Lungs, and Pulmonary Interstitial Fluid Dynamics
-:- Pulmonary Edema
-:- Fluid in the Pleural Cavity
-:- Physics of Gas Diffusion and Gas Partial Pressures
-:- Composition of Alveolar Air - Its Relation to Atmospheric Air
-:- Diffusion of Gases Through the Respiratory Membrane
-:- Factors That Affect the Rate of Gas Diffusion Through the Respiratory Membrane
-:- Diffusing Capacity of the Respiratory Membrane
-:- Effect of the Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio on Alveolar Gas Concentration
-:- Transport of Oxygen from the Lungs to the Body Tissues
-:- Diffusion of Oxygen from the Alveoli to the Pulmonary Capillary Blood
-:- Transport of Oxygen in the Arterial Blood
-:- Diffusion of Oxygen from the Peripheral Capillaries into the Tissue Fluid
-:- Diffusion of Oxygen from the Peripheral Capillaries to the Tissue Cells
-:- Diffusion of Carbon Dioxide from the Peripheral Tissue Cells into the Capillaries and from the Pulmonary Capillaries into the Alveoli
-:- Role of Hemoglobin in Oxygen Transport
-:- Reversible Combination of Oxygen with Hemoglobin
-:- Effect of Hemoglobin to “Buffer” the Tissue PO2
-:- Factors That Shift the Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve - Their Importance for Oxygen Transport
-:- Metabolic Use of Oxygen by the Cells
-:- Transport of Oxygen in the Dissolved State
-:- Combination of Hemoglobin with Carbon Monoxide -Displacement of Oxygen
-:- Transport of Carbon Dioxide in the Blood
-:- Respiratory Exchange Ratio
-:- Respiratory Center
-:- Chemical Control of Respiration
-:- Peripheral Chemoreceptor System for Control of Respiratory Activity - Role of Oxygen in Respiratory Control
-:- Regulation of Respiration During Exercise
-:- Other Factors That Affect Respiration
-:- Sleep Apnea
-:- Respiratory Insufficiency-Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Oxygen Therapy
-:- Study of Blood Gases and Blood pH
-:- Measurement of Maximum Expiratory Flow
-:- Forced Expiratory Vital Capacity and Forced Expiratory Volume
-:- Physiologic Peculiarities of Specific Pulmonary Abnormalities
-:- Chronic Pulmonary Emphysema
-:- Pneumonia
-:- Atelectasis
-:- Asthma
-:- Tuberculosis
-:- Hypoxia and Oxygen Therapy
-:- Hypercapnia
-:- Artificial Respiration
-:- Effects of Low Oxygen Pressure on the Body
-:- Alveolar PO2 at Different Elevations
-:- Effect of Breathing Pure Oxygen on Alveolar PO2 at Different Altitudes
-:- Acute Effects of Hypoxia
-:- Acclimatization to Low PO2
-:- Natural Acclimatization of Native Human Beings Living at High Altitudes
-:- Reduced Work Capacity at High Altitudes and Positive Effect of Acclimatization
-:- Acute Mountain Sickness and High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema
-:- Chronic Mountain Sickness
-:- Effects of Acceleratory Forces on the Body in Aviation and Space Physiology
-:- “Artificial Climate” in the Sealed Spacecraft
-:- Weightlessness in Space
-:- Physiology of Deep-Sea Diving and Other Hyperbaric Conditions
-:- Effect of High Partial Pressures of Individual Gases on the Body
-:- Nitrogen Narcosis at High Nitrogen Pressures
-:- Oxygen Toxicity at High Pressures
-:- Carbon Dioxide Toxicity at Great Depths in the Sea
-:- Decompression of the Diver After Excess Exposure to High Pressure
-:- Scuba (Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus) Diving
-:- Special Physiologic Problems in Submarines
-:- Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
-:- General Design of the Nervous System
-:- Major Levels of Central Nervous System Function
-:- Comparison of the Nervous System with a Computer
-:- Central Nervous System Synapses
-:- Types of Synapses-Chemical and Electrical - Central Nervous System Synapses
-:- Physiologic Anatomy of the Synapse - Central Nervous System Synapses
-:- Chemical Substances That Function as Synaptic Transmitters - Central Nervous System Synapses
-:- Electrical Events During Neuronal Excitation - Central Nervous System Synapses
-:- Electrical Events During Neuronal Inhibition - Central Nervous System Synapses
-:- Special Functions of Dendrites for Exciting Neurons - Central Nervous System Synapses
-:- Relation of State of Excitation of the Neuron to Rate of Firing - Central Nervous System Synapses
-:- Some Special Characteristics of Synaptic Transmission
-:- Types of Sensory Receptors and the Sensory Stimuli They Detect
-:- Transduction of Sensory Stimuli into Nerve Impulses
-:- Nerve Fibers That Transmit Different Types of Signals, and Their Physiologic Classification
-:- Transmission of Signals of Different Intensity in Nerve Tracts-Spatial and Temporal Summation
-:- Transmission and Processing of Signals in Neuronal Pools
-:- Relaying of Signals Through Neuronal Pools
-:- Prolongation of a Signal by a Neuronal Pool-“Afterdischarge”
-:- Instability and Stability of Neuronal Circuits
-:- Classification of Somatic Senses
-:- Detection and Transmission of Tactile Sensations
-:- Sensory Pathways for Transmitting Somatic Signals into the Central Nervous System
-:- Anatomy of the Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscal System
-:- Somatosensory Cortex
-:- Somatosensory Association Areas
-:- Overall Characteristics of Signal Transmission and Analysis in the Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscal System
-:- Interpretation of Sensory Stimulus Intensity
-:- Judgment of Stimulus Intensity
-:- Position Senses(proprioceptive senses)
-:- Transmission of Less Critical Sensory Signals in the Anterolateral Pathway
-:- Some Special Aspects of Somatosensory Function
-:- Types of Pain and Their Qualities-Fast Pain and Slow Pain
-:- Pain Receptors and Their Stimulation
-:- Dual Pathways for Transmission of Pain Signals into the Central Nervous System
-:- Pain Suppression (“Analgesia”) System in the Brain and Spinal Cord
-:- Referred Pain
-:- Visceral Pain
-:- Causes of True Visceral Pain
-:- Some Clinical Abnormalities of Pain and Other Somatic Sensations
-:- Headache
-:- Headache of Intracranial Origin
-:- Types of Intracranial Headache
-:- Extracranial Types of Headache
-:- Thermal Receptors and Their Excitation
-:- Transmission of Thermal Signals in the Nervous System
-:- Physical Principles of Optics - Eye
-:- The Eye as a Camera - Optics of the Eye
-:- Mechanism of “Accommodation” - Optics of the Eye
-:- Pupillary Diameter - Optics of the Eye
-:- Errors of Refraction - Optics of the Eye
-:- Visual Acuity - Optics of the Eye
-:- Determination of Distance of an Object from the Eye- “Depth Perception”
-:- Ophthalmoscope
-:- Fluid System of the Eye- Intraocular Fluid
-:- Anatomy and Function of the Structural Elements of the Retina
-:- Photochemistry of Eye Vision
-:- Rhodopsin Retinal Visual Cycle, and Excitation of the Rods - Photochemistry of Eye Vision
-:- Automatic Regulation of Retinal Sensitivity-Light and Dark Adaptation - Photochemistry of Eye Vision
-:- Color Vision: Tricolor Mechanism of Color Detection, Color Blindness
-:- Neural Circuitry of the Retina - Neural Function of the Retina
-:- Ganglion Cells and Optic Nerve Fibers - Neural Function of the Retina
-:- Excitation of the Ganglion Cells - Neural Function of the Retina
-:- Visual Pathways
-:- Organization and Function of the Visual Cortex
-:- Neuronal Patterns of Stimulation During Analysis of the Visual Image
-:- Fields of Vision; Perimetry
-:- Eye Movements and Their Control
-:- Fixation Movements of the Eyes
-:- “Fusion” of the Visual Images from the Two Eyes
-:- Autonomic Control of Accommodation and Pupillary Aperture
-:- Control of Accommodation (Focusing the Eyes)
-:- Control of Pupillary Diameter
-:- Tympanic Membrane and the Ossicular System
-:- Functional Anatomy of the Cochlea
-:- Transmission of Sound Waves in the Cochlea-“Traveling Wave”
-:- Function of the Organ of Corti
-:- Determination of Sound Frequency- The “Place” Principle - Cochlea
-:- Determination of Loudness
-:- Auditory Nervous Pathways
-:- Function of the Cerebral Cortex in Hearing
-:- Determination of the Direction from Which Sound Comes
-:- Centrifugal Signals from the Central Nervous System to Lower Auditory Centers
-:- Hearing Abnormalities: Types of Deafness
-:- Sense of Taste
-:- Primary Sensations of Taste
-:- Taste Bud and Its Function
-:- Transmission of Taste Signals into the Central Nervous System
-:- Taste Preference and Control of the Diet
-:- Sense of Smell
-:- Olfactory Membrane - Sense of Smell
-:- Stimulation of the Olfactory Cells - Sense of Smell
-:- Transmission of Smell Signals into the Central Nervous System
-:- Organization of the Spinal Cord for Motor Functions
-:- Muscle Sensory Receptors- Muscle Spindles and Golgi Tendon Organs-And Their Roles in Muscle Control
-:- Receptor Function of the Muscle Spindle
-:- Muscle Stretch Reflex
-:- Role of the Muscle Spindle in Voluntary Motor Activity
-:- Clinical Applications of the Stretch Reflex
-:- Golgi Tendon Reflex
-:- Function of the Muscle Spindles and Golgi Tendon Organ
-:- Flexor Reflex and the Withdrawal Reflexes
-:- Crossed Extensor Reflex
-:- Reciprocal Inhibition and Reciprocal Innervation
-:- Postural and Locomotive Reflexes of the Cord
-:- Scratch Reflex
-:- Spinal Cord Reflexes That Cause Muscle Spasm
-:- Autonomic Reflexes in the Spinal Cord
-:- Spinal Cord Transection and Spinal Shock
-:- Motor Cortex and Corticospinal Tract
-:- Some Specialized Areas of Motor Control Found in the Human Motor Cortex
-:- Transmission of Signals from the Motor Cortex to the Muscles
-:- Incoming Fiber Pathways to the Motor Cortex
-:- Red Nucleus Serves as an Alternative Pathway for Transmitting Cortical Signals to the Spinal Cord
-:- “Extrapyramidal” System
-:- Excitation of the Spinal Cord Motor Control Areas by the Primary Motor Cortex and Red Nucleus
-:- Role of the Brain Stem in Controlling Motor Function
-:- Support of the Body Against Gravity- Roles of the Reticular and Vestibular Nuclei
-:- Vestibular Apparatus
-:- Function of the Utricle and Saccule in the Maintenance of Static Equilibrium
-:- Detection of Head Rotation by the Semicircular Ducts
-:- Vestibular Mechanisms for Stabilizing the Eyes
-:- Other Factors Concerned with Equilibrium - Vestibular Mechanisms
-:- Functions of Brain Stem Nuclei in Controlling Subconscious, Stereotyped Movements
-:- Cerebellum and Its Motor Functions
-:- Anatomical Functional Areas of the Cerebellum
-:- Neuronal Circuit of the Cerebellum
-:- Function of the Cerebellum in Overall Motor Control
-:- Clinical Abnormalities of the Cerebellum
-:- Basal Ganglia-Their Motor Functions
-:- Clinical Syndromes Resulting from Damage to the Basal Ganglia
-:- Integration of the Many Parts of the Total Motor Control System
-:- Physiologic Anatomy of the Cerebral Cortex
-:- Functions of Specific Cortical Areas
-:- Association Areas - Functions of Specific Cortical Areas
-:- Comprehensive Interpretative Function of the Posterior Superior Temporal Lobe-“Wernicke’s Area” (a General Interpretative Area)
-:- Functions of the Parieto-occipitotemporal Cortex in the Nondominant Hemisphere
-:- Higher Intellectual Functions of the Prefrontal Association Areas
-:- Function of the Brain in Communication-Language Input and Language Output
-:- Function of the Corpus Callosum and Anterior Commissure
-:- Thoughts, Consciousness, and Memory
-:- Memory-Roles of Synaptic Facilitation and Synaptic Inhibition
-:- Short-Term Memory
-:- Intermediate Long-Term Memory
-:- Long-Term Memory
-:- Consolidation of Memory
-:- Activating-Driving Systems of the Brain
-:- Control of Cerebral Activity by Continuous Excitatory Signals from the Brain Stem
-:- Neurohormonal Control of Brain Activity
-:- Limbic System
-:- Functional Anatomy of the Limbic System; Key Position of the Hypothalamus
-:- Hypothalamus, a Major Control Headquarters for the Limbic System
-:- Vegetative and Endocrine Control Functions of the Hypothalamus
-:- Behavioral Functions of the Hypothalamus and Associated Limbic Structures
-:- “Reward” and “Punishment” Function of the Limbic System
-:- Importance of Reward or Punishment in Behavior
-:- Functions of the Hippocampus
-:- Functions of the Amygdala
-:- Function of the Limbic Cortex
-:- Sleep and Two Types of Sleep
-:- Slow-Wave Sleep
-:- REM Sleep (Paradoxical Sleep, Desynchronized Sleep)
-:- Basic Theories of Sleep
-:- Physiologic Effects of Sleep
-:- Brain Waves
-:- Origin of Brain Waves
-:- Epilepsy
-:- Psychotic Behavior and Dementia-Roles of Specific Neurotransmitter Systems
-:- General Organization of the Autonomic Nervous System
-:- Cholinergic and Adrenergic Fibers- Secretion of Acetylcholine or Norepinephrine
-:- Receptors on the Effector Organs
-:- Excitatory and Inhibitory Actions of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Stimulation
-:- Effects of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Stimulation on Specific Organs
-:- Function of the Adrenal Medullae
-:- Relation of Stimulus Rate to Degree of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Effect
-:- Sympathetic and Parasympathetic “Tone”
-:- Denervation Supersensitivity of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Organs After Denervation
-:- Stimulation of Discrete Organs in Some Instances and Mass Stimulation
-:- Pharmacology of the Autonomic Nervous System
-:- Normal Rate of Cerebral Blood Flow
-:- Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow
-:- Cerebral Microcirculation
-:- Cerebral “Stroke” Occurs When Cerebral Blood Vessels Are Blocked
-:- Cerebrospinal Fluid System
-:- Cushioning Function of the Cerebrospinal Fluid
-:- Formation, Flow, and Absorption of Cerebrospinal Fluid
-:- Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure
-:- Obstruction to Flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid Can Cause Hydrocephalus
-:- Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood-Brain Barriers
-:- Brain Edema
-:- Brain Metabolism
-:- General Principles of Gastrointestinal Motility
-:- Neural Control of Gastrointestinal Function- Enteric Nervous System
-:- Differences Between the Myenteric and Submucosal Plexuses
-:- Types of Neurotransmitters Secreted by Enteric Neurons
-:- Hormonal Control of Gastrointestinal Motility
-:- Functional Types of Movements in the Gastrointestinal Tract
-:- Gastrointestinal Blood Flow- “Splanchnic Circulation”
-:- Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Blood Supply
-:- Effect of Gut Activity and Metabolic Factors on Gastrointestinal Blood Flow
-:- Nervous Control of Gastrointestinal Blood Flow
-:- Ingestion of Food
-:- Motor Functions of the Stomach
-:- Stomach Emptying and Regulation of Stomach Emptying
-:- Movements of the Small Intestine
-:- Mixing Contractions (Segmentation Contractions) - Movements of the Small Intestine
-:- Propulsive Movements of the Small Intestine
-:- Function of the Ileocecal Valve
-:- Movements of the Colon
-:- Other Autonomic Reflexes That Affect Bowel Activity
-:- General Principles of Alimentary Tract Secretion
-:- Anatomical Types of Glands
-:- Basic Mechanisms of Stimulation of the Alimentary Tract Glands
-:- Basic Mechanism of Secretion by Glandular Cells
-:- Lubricating and Protective Properties of Mucus, and Importance of Mucus in the Gastrointestinal Tract
-:- Secretion of Saliva
-:- Nervous Regulation of Salivary Secretion
-:- Esophageal Secretion
-:- Characteristics of the Gastric Secretions
-:- Pyloric Glands-Secretion of Mucus and Gastrin
-:- Surface Mucous Cells
-:- Stimulation of Gastric Acid Secretion
-:- Regulation of Pepsinogen Secretion and Phases of Gastric Secretion
-:- Inhibition of Gastric Secretion by Other Post-Stomach Intestinal Factors
-:- Chemical Composition of Gastrin and Other Gastrointestinal Hormones
-:- Pancreatic Secretion
-:- Pancreatic Digestive Enzymes
-:- Secretion of Bicarbonate Ions
-:- Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion
-:- Secretion of Bile by the Liver; Functions of the Biliary Tree
-:- Physiologic Anatomy of Biliary Secretion
-:- Function of Bile Salts in Fat Digestion and Absorption
-:- Liver Secretion of Cholesterol and Gallstone Formation
-:- Secretions of the Small Intestine
-:- Secretions of the Large Intestine
-:- Digestion of the Various Foods by Hydrolysis
-:- Digestion of Carbohydrates
-:- Digestion of Proteins
-:- Digestion of Fats
-:- Basic Principles of Gastrointestinal Absorption
-:- Absorption in the Small Intestine
-:- Absorption of Water in the Small Intestine
-:- Absorption of Ions in the Small Intestine
-:- Absorption of Nutrients in the Small Intestine
-:- Absorption in the Large Intestine: Formation of Feces
-:- Disorders of Swallowing and of the Esophagus
-:- Disorders of the Stomach
-:- Peptic Ulcer - Disorders of the Stomach
-:- Specific Causes of Peptic Ulcer in the Human Being
-:- Disorders of the Small Intestine
-:- Abnormal Digestion of Food in the Small Intestine-Pancreatic Failure
-:- Malabsorption by the Small Intestinal Mucosa-Sprue
-:- Disorders of the Large Intestine
-:- General Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract
-:- Release of Energy from Foods, and the Concept of “Free Energy”
-:- Role of Adenosine Triphosphate in Metabolism
-:- Central Role of Glucose in Carbohydrate Metabolism
-:- Transport of Glucose Through the Cell Membrane
-:- Glycogen Is Stored in Liver and Muscle
-:- Release of Energy from the Glucose Molecule by the Glycolytic Pathway
-:- Summary of ATP Formation During the Breakdown of Glucose
-:- Effect of ATP and ADP Cell Concentrations in Controlling the Rate of Glycolysis
-:- Anaerobic Release of Energy- “Anaerobic Glycolysis”
-:- Release of Energy from Glucose by the Pentose Phosphate Pathway
-:- Formation of Carbohydrates from Proteins and Fats- “Gluconeogenesis”
-:- Blood Glucose
-:- Lipid Metabolism
-:- Transport of Lipids in the Body Fluids
-:- Fat Deposits: Adipose Tissue, Liver Lipids
-:- Use of Triglycerides for Energy: Formation of Adenosine Triphosphate
-:- Formation of Acetoacetic Acid in the Liver and Its Transport in the Blood
-:- Synthesis of Triglycerides from Carbohydrates
-:- Synthesis of Triglycerides from Proteins
-:- Regulation of Energy Release from Triglycerides
-:- Phospholipids
-:- Cholesterol
-:- Cellular Structural Functions of Phospholipids and Cholesterol- Especially for Membranes
-:- Atherosclerosis
-:- Basic Causes of Atherosclerosis - The Roles of Cholesterol and Lipoproteins
-:- Few Major Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis
-:- Prevention of Atherosclerosis
-:- Basic Properties of Protein Metabolism: Amino Acids
-:- Transport and Storage of Amino Acids
-:- Functional Roles of the Plasma Proteins
-:- Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids
-:- Use of Proteins for Energy
-:- Obligatory Degradation of Proteins
-:- Hormonal Regulation of Protein Metabolism
-:- Physiologic Anatomy of the Liver
-:- Hepatic Vascular and Lymph Systems
-:- Metabolic Functions of the Liver
-:- Measurement of Bilirubin in the Bile as a Clinical Diagnostic Tool
-:- Jaundice-Excess Bilirubin in the Extracellular Fluid
-:- Energy Intake and Output Are Balanced Under Steady- State Conditions
-:- Dietary Balances: Energy Available in Foods
-:- Methods for Determining Metabolic Utilization of Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Fats
-:- Regulation of Food Intake and Energy Storage
-:- Neural Centers Regulate Food Intake
-:- Factors That Regulate Quantity of Food Intake
-:- Obesity
-:- Decreased Physical Activity and Abnormal Feeding Regulation as Causes of Obesity
-:- Treatment of Obesity
-:- Inanition, Anorexia, and Cachexia
-:- Starvation
-:- Vitamins
-:- Vitamin A
-:- Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
-:- Niacin
-:- Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
-:- Vitamin B12
-:- Folic Acid (Pteroylglutamic Acid)
-:- Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
-:- Pantothenic Acid
-:- Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
-:- Vitamin D
-:- Vitamin E
-:- Vitamin K
-:- Mineral Metabolism
-:- Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Functions as an “Energy Currency” in Metabolism
-:- Phosphocreatine Functions as an Accessory Storage Depot for Energy and as an “ATP Buffer”
-:- Anaerobic Versus Aerobic Energy
-:- Summary of Energy Utilization by the Cells
-:- Control of Energy Release in the Cell
-:- Metabolic Rate
-:- Measurement of the Whole-Body Metabolic Rate
-:- Energy Metabolism-Factors That Influence Energy Output
-:- Overall Energy Requirements for Daily Activities
-:- Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)- The Minimum Energy Expenditure for the Body to Exist
-:- Energy Used for Physical Activities
-:- Normal Body Temperatures
-:- Body Temperature Is Controlled by Balancing Heat Production Against Heat Loss
-:- Regulation of Body Temperature-Role of the Hypothalamus
-:- Neuronal Effector Mechanisms That Decrease or Increase Body Temperature
-:- Concept of a “Set-Point” for Temperature Control
-:- Behavioral Control of Body Temperature
-:- Abnormalities of Body Temperature Regulation
-:- Exposure of the Body to Extreme Cold
-:- Coordination of Body Functions by Chemical Messengers
-:- Chemical Structure and Synthesis of Hormones
-:- Hormone Secretion, Transport, and Clearance from the Blood
-:- Hormone Receptors and Their Activation
-:- Intracellular Signaling After Hormone Receptor Activation
-:- Second Messenger Mechanisms for Mediating Intracellular Hormonal Functions
-:- Hormones That Act Mainly on the Genetic Machinery of the Cell
-:- Measurement of Hormone Concentrations in the Blood
-:- Pituitary Gland and Its Relation to the Hypothalamus
-:- Hypothalamus Controls Pituitary Secretion
-:- Physiological Functions of Growth Hormone
-:- Growth Hormone Promotes Growth of Many Body Tissues
-:- Growth Hormone Has Several Metabolic Effects
-:- Growth Hormone Stimulates Cartilage and Bone Growth
-:- Growth Hormone Exerts Much of Its Effect Through Intermediate Substances Called “Somatomedins”
-:- Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion
-:- Abnormalities of Growth Hormone Secretion
-:- Posterior Pituitary Gland and Its Relation to the Hypothalamus
-:- Physiological Functions of ADH
-:- Oxytocic Hormone
-:- Thyroid Metabolic Hormones
-:- Synthesis and Secretion of the Thyroid Metabolic Hormones
-:- Physiologic Functions of the Thyroid Hormones
-:- Thyroid Hormones Increase the Transcription of Large Numbers of Genes
-:- Thyroid Hormones Increase Cellular Metabolic Activity
-:- Effect of Thyroid Hormone on Growth
-:- Effects of Thyroid Hormone on Specific Bodily Mechanisms
-:- Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Secretion
-:- Diseases of the Thyroid
-:- Hyperthyroidism
-:- Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
-:- Hypothyroidism
-:- Cretinism
-:- Adrenocortical Hormones
-:- Synthesis and Secretion of Adrenocortical Hormones
-:- Functions of the Mineralocorticoids- Aldosterone
-:- Renal and Circulatory Effects of Aldosterone
-:- Aldosterone Stimulates Sodium and Potassium Transport
-:- Cellular Mechanism of Aldosterone Action
-:- Possible Nongenomic Actions of Aldosterone and Other Steroid Hormones
-:- Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion
-:- Functions of the Glucocorticoids
-:- Effects of Cortisol on Carbohydrate Metabolism
-:- Effects of Cortisol on Protein Metabolism
-:- Effects of Cortisol on Fat Metabolism
-:- Cortisol is Important in Resisting Stress and Inflammation
-:- Other Effects of Cortisol
-:- Cellular Mechanism of Cortisol Action
-:- Regulation of Cortisol Secretion by Adrenocorticotropic Hormone from the Pituitary Gland
-:- Adrenal Androgens
-:- Abnormalities of Adrenocortical Secretion
-:- Hypoadrenalism-Addison’s Disease
-:- Hyperadrenalism-Cushing’s Syndrome
-:- Primary Aldosteronism (Conn’s Syndrome)
-:- Adrenogenital Syndrome
-:- Insulin and Its Metabolic Effects
-:- Effect of Insulin on Carbohydrate Metabolism
-:- Effect of Insulin on Fat Metabolism
-:- Effect of Insulin on Protein Metabolism and on Growth
-:- Mechanisms of Insulin Secretion
-:- Control of Insulin Secretion
-:- Other Factors That Stimulate Insulin Secretion
-:- Role of Insulin (and Other Hormones) in “Switching” Between Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism
-:- Glucagon and Its Functions
-:- Somatostatin Inhibits Glucagon and Insulin Secretion
-:- Summary of Blood Glucose Regulation
-:- Diabetes Mellitus
-:- Type I Diabetes-Lack of Insulin Production by Beta Cells of the Pancreas
-:- Type II Diabetes-Resistance to the Metabolic Effects of Insulin
-:- Physiology of Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus
-:- Treatment of Diabetes
-:- Insulinoma-Hyperinsulinism
-:- Overview of Calcium and Phosphate Regulation in the Extracellular Fluid and Plasma
-:- Bone and Its Relation to Extracellular Calcium and Phosphate
-:- Precipitation and Absorption of Calcium and Phosphate in Bone-Equilibrium with the Extracellular Fluids
-:- Calcium Exchange Between Bone and Extracellular Fluid
-:- Deposition and Absorption of Bone-Remodeling of Bone
-:- Vitamin D and Actions of Vitamin D
-:- Parathyroid Hormone
-:- Effect of Parathyroid Hormone on Calcium and Phosphate Concentrations in the Extracellular Fluid
-:- Control of Parathyroid Secretion by Calcium Ion Concentration
-:- Calcitonin
-:- Summary of Control of Calcium Ion Concentration
-:- Hypoparathyroidism
-:- Primary Hyperparathyroidism
-:- Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
-:- Rickets-Vitamin D Deficiency
-:- Osteoporosis-Decreased Bone Matrix
-:- Physiology of the Teeth
-:- Function of the Different Parts of the Teeth
-:- Dentition
-:- Mineral Exchange in Teeth
-:- Dental Abnormalities
-:- Physiologic Anatomy of the Male Sexual Organs
-:- Spermatogenesis
-:- Steps of Spermatogenesis
-:- Function of the Seminal Vesicles
-:- Function of the Prostate Gland
-:- Semen
-:- Abnormal Spermatogenesis and Male Fertility
-:- Neuronal Stimulus for Performance of the Male Sexual Act
-:- Stages of the Male Sexual Act
-:- Secretion, Metabolism, and Chemistry of the Male Sex Hormone
-:- Functions of Testosterone
-:- Basic Intracellular Mechanism of Action of Testosterone
-:- Control of Male Sexual Functions by Hormones from the Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary Gland
-:- Abnormalities of Male Sexual Function
-:- Prostate Gland and Its Abnormalities
-:- Hypogonadism in the Male
-:- Testicular Tumors and Hypergonadism in the Male
-:- Pineal Gland-Its Function in Controlling Seasonal Fertility in Some Animals
-:- Physiologic Anatomy of the Female Sexual Organs
-:- Female Hormonal System
-:- Monthly Ovarian Cycle; Function of the Gonadotropic Hormones
-:- Gonadotropic Hormones and Their Effects on the Ovaries
-:- Ovarian Follicle Growth- “Follicular” Phase of the Ovarian Cycle
-:- Corpus Luteum-“Luteal” Phase of the Ovarian Cycle
-:- Functions of the Ovarian Hormones-Estradiol and Progesterone
-:- Chemistry of the Sex Hormones
-:- Functions of the Estrogens- Their Effects on the Primary and Secondary Female Sex Characteristics
-:- Functions of Progesterone
-:- Monthly Endometrial Cycle and Menstruation
-:- Regulation of the Female Monthly Rhythm-Interplay Between the Ovarian and Hypothalamic-Pituitary Hormones
-:- Feedback Oscillation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian System
-:- Puberty and Menarche
-:- Menopause
-:- Abnormalities of Secretion by the Ovaries
-:- Female Sexual Act
-:- Female Fertility
-:- Maturation and Fertilization of the Ovum
-:- Early Nutrition of the Embryo
-:- Function of the Placenta: Developmental and Physiologic Anatomy of the Placenta
-:- Hormonal Factors in Pregnancy
-:- Response of the Mother’s Body to Pregnancy
-:- Changes in the Maternal Circulatory System During Pregnancy
-:- Increased Uterine Excitability Near Term - Parturition
-:- Onset of Labor-A Positive Feedback Mechanism for Its Initiation - Parturition
-:- Abdominal Muscle Contractions During Labor
-:- Mechanics of Parturition
-:- Separation and Delivery of the Placenta
-:- Labor Pains
-:- Involution of the Uterus After Parturition
-:- Parturition
-:- Lactation
-:- Development of the Breasts - Lactation
-:- Initiation of Lactation-Function of Prolactin
-:- Ejection (or “Let-Down”) Process in Milk Secretion-Function of Oxytocin
-:- Milk Composition and the Metabolic Drain on the Mother Caused by Lactation
-:- Growth and Functional Development of the Fetus
-:- Adjustments of the Infant to Extrauterine Life
-:- Onset of Breathing - Adjustments of the Infant to Extrauterine Life
-:- Circulatory Readjustments at Birth - Adjustments of the Infant to Extrauterine Life
-:- Nutrition of the Neonate - Adjustments of the Infant to Extrauterine Life
-:- Special Functional Problems in the Neonate
-:- Special Problemsof Prematurity
-:- Growth and Development of the Child
-:- Sports Physiology
-:- Muscles in Exercise: Strength, Power, and Endurance of Muscles
-:- Muscle Metabolic Systems in Exercise
-:- Phosphocreatine-Creatine System - Muscles in Exercise
-:- Nutrients Used During Muscle Activity - Muscles in Exercise
-:- Effect of Athletic Training on Muscles and Muscle Performance
-:- Respiration in Exercise
-:- Cardiovascular System in Exercise
-:- Body Heat in Exercise
-:- Body Fluids and Salt in Exercise
-:- Drugs and Athletes
-:- Body Fitness Prolongs Life