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11th Standard Higher secondary First Year

Botany -

Botany

BIODIVERSITY


-:- Taxonomy and Phylogeny
-:- Two Kingdom System of Classification
-:- The Five Kingdom System of Classification
-:- Viruses - Introduction And General characteristics
-:- Viruses : Size, Shape And Structure of a Virus
-:- Classification of virus
-:- Lytic and Lysogenic Life cycle of a phage
-:- Plant viral disease : Bunchy top of banana, HIV, cancer, SARS Virion
-:- A new disease called SARS Virion
-:- Bacteria : Introduction, Occurrence, Size
-:- Classification of bacteria based on the shape and arrangement
-:- Flagellation in Bacteria
-:- Nutrition in Plant Bacteria
-:- Respiration in Plant Bacteria
-:- Reproduction of Bacteria
-:- Harmful activities of Bacteria in Plants, Animal, Human beings
-:- Beneficial Activities of Bacteria
-:- Fungi : Salient and Distinguishing Features, Structure, Nutrition, Saprotrophs
-:- Fungai : Saprotrophs and Parasites
-:- Fungi Symbiosis
-:- Classification of Fungi
-:- Economic importance of Fungi : Useful and Harmful aspects of fungi
-:- Mucor : Occurrence, Reproduction, Somatic structure
-:- Algae : Salient Features, Occurrence and Distribution, Thallus organization
-:- Algae : Cell Structure & Pigmentation
-:- Algea : Arranagement of Flagella
-:- Algea Reproduction : 1. Vegetative 2. Asexual 3. Sexual
-:- Classification of Algea
-:- Economic Importance of Algae - Food, Agriculture, Industry, space travel, Single cell protein, Sewage Disposal
-:- Harmful effects of Algae
-:- Spirogyra : Detail, Occurrence, Structure
-:- Algea : Reproduction
-:- Bryophytes : Salient and Distinguishing features of Bryophytes
-:- Bryophytes : Alternation of Generations
-:- Classification of Bryophyta
-:- Riccia And The structure of mature gametophyte
-:- Reproduction of Riccia
-:- Riccia - Fertilization, Sporophyte Generation
-:- Life cycle of Riccia
-:- Pteridophytes : Salient features and Salient features
-:- Characteristics of Pteridophytes and Economic importance
-:- Morphology of sporophyte
-:- Anatomy of Nephrolepsis
-:- Reproduction of Nephrolepsis
-:- Nephrolepsis : Fertilization
-:- Classification and Characteristic of Spermatophytes(Gymnosperms)
-:- Salient features and Distinguishing features of Gymnosperms
-:- Cycas - Morphology of sporophyte
-:- Anatomy of Cycas
-:- Cycas - Reproduction

CELL BIOLOGY


-:- A brief history about the discovery of cells
-:- Dynamic nature of cell , Difference Between Plant Cell And Animal cell
-:- Development of Cell Theory And Exception to cell Theory
-:- prokaryotic cell And Ultra structure of a prokaryotic cell
-:- Eukaryotes
-:- Different Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell (Plant Cells)
-:- Light Microscope and Electron Microscope (TEM - Transmission Electron Microscopy & SEM - Scanning Electron Microscope )
-:- Formation of the cell wall
-:- Structure of the cell wall
-:- Plasmodesmata, pits and Functions of cell wall
-:- Ultra structure of the cell membrane - Fluid mosaic Model, Lipids, Proteins
-:- Functions of plasma membrane
-:- Cell Membrane Transport
-:- List of Plant Cell Organelles
-:- Plant Cell Nucleus And Functions of Plant Cell Nucleus
-:- Plant Cell Mitochondria - Power house of the cell
-:- Plant Cell Plastids - chloroplasts, chromoplasts and leucoplasts
-:- Plant Cell : Ribosomes
-:- Plant Cell Division - Cell Cycle 1.Amitosis 2.Mitosis 3. Meiosis
-:- Cell Division : Mitotic cell cycle : 1.Prophase 2. Metaphase 3.Anaphase 4. Telophase
-:- Cell Division - Meiosis Cell Cycle : Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase

PLANT MORPHOLOGY


-:- Morphology of flowering plants or Angiosperms - short notes
-:- Plant - Root System : Regions of a typical root and General Characteristic features of the root
-:- Types of Root System And Functions of roots
-:- Root Modifications for Taproot, adventitious roots
-:- Characteristic features and Functions of the stem
-:- Modifications of stem : 1. Aerial modifications 2. Sub aerial modifications 3. Under ground modifications
-:- Parts of a Leaf : 1. Leaf base 2. Petiole 3. Lamina
-:- Leaf Venation : Reticulate, Parallel : Pinnately, Palmately
-:- Leaf Modification
-:- Inflorescence : Racemose, Cymose, Mixed and Special types
-:- FLOWER - A Metamorphosed Shoot : Evidences to support that flower is a modified shoot
-:- Description of a flower
-:- Types of Placentation : Axile,Marginal, Parietal, Basal, Superficial Placentation
-:- Androecium And Gynoecium
-:- Plant Aestivation And Types of Aestivation
-:- Corolla : Shape of the petals in the corolla and Forms of Corolla
-:- Calyx : Variations and Duration of calyx
-:- The receptacle (thalamus) : Variation of the Receptacle, Insertion of floral leaves on the thalamus
-:- Parts of a flower
-:- Fruit : Types and Structure of fruit
-:- Simple fleshy fruits : baccate,drupaceous - Berry, Drupe, Hesperidium, Pepo, Pomo
-:- Simple Dry Fruits - .1. Dehiscent 2. Schizocarpic 3. Indehiscent
-:- aggregate and multiple or composite fruits
-:- Structure and Types of Seed
-:- Structure of gram seed
-:- Structure of Maize Grain

GENETICS


-:- GENETICS : Concept of Heredity and Variation
-:- Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
-:- Intermediate Inheritance (Incomplete Dominance)
-:- Epistasis - Gene Interaction
-:- Inheritance Laws of Mendel
-:- Biography of Mendel And Mendel's Experiments on Mendel's Laws of Inheritance

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY


-:- Cell as a Physiological Unit
-:- Properties of Protoplasm : The Physical and Chemical Nature
-:- Cell - Water Relations
-:- Cells : Absorption and Movement - Imbibition, Diffusion
-:- Demonstration of Osmosis - Potato Osmoscope
-:- Plasmolysis and Significance of Plasmolysis
-:- Plant Cells : Permeability and Water Potential
-:- Water Transport in Plant
-:- Transpiration Pull Theory in plant water transport
-:- Factors Affecting Rate of Transpiration in Plant
-:- Structure of Stoma and Mechanism of Stomatal Opening and Closing
-:- Factors Affecting Stomatal Movement
-:- Functions of Minerals Nutrition
-:- Hydroponics : Advantages and Disavantagges of Hydroponics
-:- Essential Major Elements and Trace Elements for Plant
-:- Plant Physiological Role and Deficiency Symptoms of Mineral Elements
-:- Theories of Translocation for Plant : Passive absorption and Active Absorption
-:- Plant Physiology : Translocation of Solutes
-:- Plant Physiology : Nitrogen Metabolism
-:- Plant Movements : Movements of locomotion and curvature
-:- Geotropism
-:- Phototropism And Turgor Growth Movements

REPRODUCTION BIOLOGY


-:- Reproduction in Angiosperms : Vegetative Propagation
-:- Natural Methods of Vegetative Propagation : Root, Stem, Leaves
-:- Advantages of Vegetative propagation
-:- Artificial Method of Vegetative Propagation : Cuttings, Grafting
-:- Reproduction in Angiosperm : Micropropagation
-:- Self Pollination - Sexual Reproduction : 1. autogamy 2. geitonogamy
-:- Cross Pollination (Xenogamy, Allogamy) - Sexual Reproduction
-:- Development of male and female gametophyte
-:- Development of female gametophyte : Megasporophyll, Megasporangium or ovule, Megasporogenesis
-:- Types of Plant Ovule
-:- Plant Reproduction : Double fertilization
-:- Development of dicot embryo
-:- Parthenogenesis and parthenocarpy
-:- Germination of Seed : Parts of Seed
-:- Process of seed germination
-:- Types of seed germination : Epigeal, Hypogeal germination, Vivipary
-:- Factors necessary for seed gamination
-:- Abscission and Importance of Abscission
-:- senescence : Types, Physiology , Importance of senescence

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY


-:- Organisms and their Environment
-:- Organisms : Environmental Climatic Factors
-:- Organisms : Environment : Edaphic Factors
-:- Organisms : Environmental factors - Climatic, Edaphic, Biotic
-:- Relationships among Organisms : Positive and Negative Interactions
-:- Hydrophytes And Classification of Hydrophytes
-:- Morphological and Anatomical adaptations of Hydrophytes
-:- Xerophytes and Classification of Xerophytes
-:- Morphological, Anatomical and Physiological Adaptations of Xerophytes
-:- Mesophytes
-:- natural resources and Types of natural resources
-:- Sources of Energy resources
-:- Conservation of Energy
-:- Forest Resources
-:- Social Forestry and Conservation of Forests
-:- Conservation of Water and Types of Harvesting Rainwater