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Flowering plants consist of two major organ systems: Underground root system and aerial root system. Roots perform the functions of anchoring and absorbing nutrients from the soil. However some roots perform additional functions for which they undergo various modifications in shape, form and structure. Tap root continue the growth from the radical which further branches into secondary roots. Adventitious roots arise from different parts of the plant other than radical. Stem helps to display the leaves to get maximum sunlight and positioning flowers and fruits to attract pollination and dispersal agents. Apart from the normal functions the stems are modified to perform various functions such as food storage, perennation and protection. Leaves are exogenous in origin and function as food synthesizing and gaseous exchange sites. Some leaves also perform additional functions for which they are modified in their morphology. Leaves possess vascular tissues in the form of veins which render support to the lamina and help in transport of water, nutrients and food in and out of leaves. Phyllotaxy is the arrangement or distribution of leaves on the stem or its branches in such a way that they receive maximum sunlight to perform photosynthesis.
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