Majority of angiosperm possess upright, vertically growing erect stem. They are (i) Excurrent, (ii) Decurrent, (iii) Caudex, (iv) Culm.
The main axis shows continuous growth and the lateral branches gradually becoming shorter towards the apex which gives a conical appearance to the trees. Example: Polyalthia longifolia, Casuarina.
The growth of lateral branch is more vigorous than that of main axis. The tree has a rounded or spreading appearance. Example: Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica, Tamarindus indicus, Aegle marmelos
It’s an unbranched, stout, cylindrical stem, marked with scars of fallen leaves. Example: Cocus nucifera, Borassus flabelliformis, Areca catechu
Erect stems with distinct nodes and usually hollow internodes clasped by leaf sheaths. Example: Majority of grasses including Bamboo.