Plant Morphology and Taxonomy of Angiosperm
6. Why lateral roots are endogenous?
Lateral roots arises from the pericycle , part Eg. Inner part - so it is known as endogenous in origin.
7. Write the similarities and differences between
i. Avicennia and Trapa
ii. Radical buds and foliar buds
iii. Phylloclade and cladode
• Live in marshy leaves
• Has negatively geotrophic root known as respiratory roots-with pneumatophores help in exchange of gases
Trapa (water chest nut)
• Live in aquatic habitat
• Has photosynthetic or assimulatory roots - help in photosynthesis.
• Has pillar roots- grow vertically downward from the lateral branches to soil -to give additional support.
• Has broad plant like out growths develop obliquely towards the base all around the trunk - to give support.
• Roots swollen in the middle and tapering towards both ends (like a spindle shaped
• Eg.Raphanus sativus
• Roots broad and suddenly tapers like a tall at the apex (top-shaped)
• Eg.Beta vulgaris
8. How root climbers differ from stem climbers?
• Climb with the help of adventitious root( arise from node)
• Eg: Piperbetal, piper nigrum
• No special climbing structures - stem it self coils around the support
• Eg: Ipomoeaellittoria
9. Compare sympodial branching with monopodial branching.
• Determinate - growth
• Terminal bud ceases -to grow-and further growth by lateral buds- Eg.Cycas .
• Indeterminate growth
• Terminal bud - grows uninterrupted and produce several lateral branches - Eg.Polyalthia
10. Differentiate pinnate unicostate with palmate multicostate venation
Pinnately reticulate (unicoastate)
One mid rib in the centre with many lateral branches
Eg: Mangifera indica
Palmately reticulate (multicoastate)
Several veins arise from the help of peticole & run parallel & unite at the apex - 2 types -
Divergent Eg: Borassussflabellifereg,
Covergant Eg. Puddy