Types of root
Primary root is the direct prolongation of the radicle. When the primary root persists and continues to grow as in dicotyledons, it forms the main root of the plant and is called the tap root. Tap root produces lateral roots that further branches into finer roots. Lateral roots along with its branches together called as secondary roots.
Root developing from any part of the plant other than radicle is called adventitious root.
It may develop from the base of the stem or nodes or internodes. Example: Monstera deliciosa, Ficus benghalensis, Piper nigrum. In most of the monocots the primary root of the seedling is short lived and lateral roots arise from various regions of the plant body. These are bunch of thread-like roots equal in size which are collectively called fibrous root system generally found in grasses. Example: Oryza sativa, Eleusine coracana, Pennisetum americanum.
Root performs two kinds of functions namely primary and secondary functions.
• Absorb water and minerals from soil.
• Help to anchor the plant firmly in the soil.
In some plants roots perform additional functions. These are called secondary functions. To perform additional functions, these roots are modified in their structure.