Practical application of genetic transformation
1. By genetic manipulation, it is possible to obtain plants with insecticidal property. Thus, application of chemical pesticides to the crop plants is reduced.
2. Genetic manipulation is also carried out in crops for making desirable storage proteins, vitamins, amino acids and for the suppression of antinutritional protein synthesis.
3. Plants are made to produce large amount of secondary metabolites having high commercial value.
4. Losses during storage and transport of some crops can be as high as 80 per cent. This is mainly due to biological activities - bruising, heat and cold damage in soft fruits and vegetables. In tomato the enzyme polygalactronase breaks down cell wall constituents, thus leading to softening of the fruit during ripening. By inhibiting the polygalactronase by antisense genes the tomato can remain dormant fresh until mature and be transported in a firm solid state. Antisense RNA is a RNA molecule capable of controlling and expression of particular enzymes which are involved in ripening processes.
5. Genetic manipulation of flower and leaf colour, abundance of flowers, perfume and shape are now the major targets for decorative plant industries.
The genetically engineered micro-organisms are being used for the commercial production of some non-microbial products such as insulin, interferon, human growth hormone and viral vaccines.