In 1979, for the first time Anand Mohan Chakrabarty, an Indian born American scientist developed a strain of Pseudomonas putida that contained a hybrid plasmid derived by combining parts of CAM and OCT. (CAM and OCT are the plasmids which contain the genes responsible for the decomposition of the hydrocarbons like camphor and octane respectively present in the oil.) This strain could grew rapidly on crude oil because it was capable of metabolizing hydrocarbons more efficiently. The bacterial strain called the superbug was produced on a large scale in laboratory, mixed with straw and dried. When the straw was spread over oil slicks, the straw soaked up the oil and bacteria broke up the oil into non-polluting and harmless products. In this way, pollution of land and water due to the oil slicks can be remedied and the phenomenon is called bioremediation. It is defined as the use of living microorganisms to degrade environmental pollutants or prevent pollution. The contaminated sites are restored and future pollution is prevented.
1. Protection of environment - Bioremediation of polluted environment.
2. Microorganisms producing enzymes for food industry.
3. Microorganisms with improved efficiency of fermentation.
4. Improved microorganisms for milk industry.
5. Microorganisms as live attenuated vaccines for health care.
Increasing efficiency of plant nutrition, pest control (safe biopesticides), protection of plants from climatic stress and protection of plants from tumour formation and disease.