Botany

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Botany

BIODIVERSITY


=> Taxonomy and Phylogeny
=> Two Kingdom System of Classification
=> The Five Kingdom System of Classification
=> Viruses - Introduction And General characteristics
=> Viruses : Size, Shape And Structure of a Virus
=> Classification of virus
=> Lytic and Lysogenic Life cycle of a phage
=> Plant viral disease : Bunchy top of banana, HIV, cancer, SARS Virion
=> A new disease called SARS Virion
=> Bacteria : Introduction, Occurrence, Size
=> Classification of bacteria based on the shape and arrangement
=> Flagellation in Bacteria
=> Nutrition in Plant Bacteria
=> Respiration in Plant Bacteria
=> Reproduction of Bacteria
=> Harmful activities of Bacteria in Plants, Animal, Human beings
=> Beneficial Activities of Bacteria
=> Fungi : Salient and Distinguishing Features, Structure, Nutrition, Saprotrophs
=> Fungai : Saprotrophs and Parasites
=> Fungi Symbiosis
=> Classification of Fungi
=> Economic importance of Fungi : Useful and Harmful aspects of fungi
=> Mucor : Occurrence, Reproduction, Somatic structure
=> Algae : Salient Features, Occurrence and Distribution, Thallus organization
=> Algae : Cell Structure & Pigmentation
=> Algea : Arranagement of Flagella
=> Algea Reproduction : 1. Vegetative 2. Asexual 3. Sexual
=> Classification of Algea
=> Economic Importance of Algae - Food, Agriculture, Industry, space travel, Single cell protein, Sewage Disposal
=> Harmful effects of Algae
=> Spirogyra : Detail, Occurrence, Structure
=> Algea : Reproduction
=> Bryophytes : Salient and Distinguishing features of Bryophytes
=> Bryophytes : Alternation of Generations
=> Classification of Bryophyta
=> Riccia And The structure of mature gametophyte
=> Reproduction of Riccia
=> Riccia - Fertilization, Sporophyte Generation
=> Life cycle of Riccia
=> Pteridophytes : Salient features and Salient features
=> Characteristics of Pteridophytes and Economic importance
=> Morphology of sporophyte
=> Anatomy of Nephrolepsis
=> Reproduction of Nephrolepsis
=> Nephrolepsis : Fertilization
=> Classification and Characteristic of Spermatophytes(Gymnosperms)
=> Salient features and Distinguishing features of Gymnosperms
=> Cycas - Morphology of sporophyte
=> Anatomy of Cycas
=> Cycas - Reproduction

CELL BIOLOGY


=> A brief history about the discovery of cells
=> Dynamic nature of cell , Difference Between Plant Cell And Animal cell
=> Development of Cell Theory And Exception to cell Theory
=> prokaryotic cell And Ultra structure of a prokaryotic cell
=> Eukaryotes
=> Different Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell (Plant Cells)
=> Light Microscope and Electron Microscope (TEM - Transmission Electron Microscopy & SEM - Scanning Electron Microscope )
=> Formation of the cell wall
=> Structure of the cell wall
=> Plasmodesmata, pits and Functions of cell wall
=> Ultra structure of the cell membrane - Fluid mosaic Model, Lipids, Proteins
=> Functions of plasma membrane
=> Cell Membrane Transport
=> List of Plant Cell Organelles
=> Plant Cell Nucleus And Functions of Plant Cell Nucleus
=> Plant Cell Mitochondria - Power house of the cell
=> Plant Cell Plastids - chloroplasts, chromoplasts and leucoplasts
=> Plant Cell : Ribosomes
=> Plant Cell Division - Cell Cycle 1.Amitosis 2.Mitosis 3. Meiosis
=> Cell Division : Mitotic cell cycle : 1.Prophase 2. Metaphase 3.Anaphase 4. Telophase
=> Cell Division - Meiosis Cell Cycle : Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase

PLANT MORPHOLOGY


=> Morphology of flowering plants or Angiosperms - short notes
=> Plant - Root System : Regions of a typical root and General Characteristic features of the root
=> Types of Root System And Functions of roots
=> Root Modifications for Taproot, adventitious roots
=> Characteristic features and Functions of the stem
=> Modifications of stem : 1. Aerial modifications 2. Sub aerial modifications 3. Under ground modifications
=> Parts of a Leaf : 1. Leaf base 2. Petiole 3. Lamina
=> Leaf Venation : Reticulate, Parallel : Pinnately, Palmately
=> Leaf Modification
=> Inflorescence : Racemose, Cymose, Mixed and Special types
=> FLOWER - A Metamorphosed Shoot : Evidences to support that flower is a modified shoot
=> Description of a flower
=> Types of Placentation : Axile,Marginal, Parietal, Basal, Superficial Placentation
=> Androecium And Gynoecium
=> Plant Aestivation And Types of Aestivation
=> Corolla : Shape of the petals in the corolla and Forms of Corolla
=> Calyx : Variations and Duration of calyx
=> The receptacle (thalamus) : Variation of the Receptacle, Insertion of floral leaves on the thalamus
=> Parts of a flower
=> Fruit : Types and Structure of fruit
=> Simple fleshy fruits : baccate,drupaceous - Berry, Drupe, Hesperidium, Pepo, Pomo
=> Simple Dry Fruits - .1. Dehiscent 2. Schizocarpic 3. Indehiscent
=> aggregate and multiple or composite fruits
=> Structure and Types of Seed
=> Structure of gram seed
=> Structure of Maize Grain

GENETICS


=> GENETICS : Concept of Heredity and Variation
=> Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
=> Intermediate Inheritance (Incomplete Dominance)
=> Epistasis - Gene Interaction
=> Inheritance Laws of Mendel
=> Biography of Mendel And Mendel's Experiments on Mendel's Laws of Inheritance

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY


=> Cell as a Physiological Unit
=> Properties of Protoplasm : The Physical and Chemical Nature
=> Cell - Water Relations
=> Cells : Absorption and Movement - Imbibition, Diffusion
=> Demonstration of Osmosis - Potato Osmoscope
=> Plasmolysis and Significance of Plasmolysis
=> Plant Cells : Permeability and Water Potential
=> Water Transport in Plant
=> Transpiration Pull Theory in plant water transport
=> Factors Affecting Rate of Transpiration in Plant
=> Structure of Stoma and Mechanism of Stomatal Opening and Closing
=> Factors Affecting Stomatal Movement
=> Functions of Minerals Nutrition
=> Hydroponics : Advantages and Disavantagges of Hydroponics
=> Essential Major Elements and Trace Elements for Plant
=> Plant Physiological Role and Deficiency Symptoms of Mineral Elements
=> Theories of Translocation for Plant : Passive absorption and Active Absorption
=> Plant Physiology : Translocation of Solutes
=> Plant Physiology : Nitrogen Metabolism
=> Plant Movements : Movements of locomotion and curvature
=> Geotropism
=> Phototropism And Turgor Growth Movements

REPRODUCTION BIOLOGY


=> Reproduction in Angiosperms : Vegetative Propagation
=> Natural Methods of Vegetative Propagation : Root, Stem, Leaves
=> Advantages of Vegetative propagation
=> Artificial Method of Vegetative Propagation : Cuttings, Grafting
=> Reproduction in Angiosperm : Micropropagation
=> Self Pollination - Sexual Reproduction : 1. autogamy 2. geitonogamy
=> Cross Pollination (Xenogamy, Allogamy) - Sexual Reproduction
=> Development of male and female gametophyte
=> Development of female gametophyte : Megasporophyll, Megasporangium or ovule, Megasporogenesis
=> Types of Plant Ovule
=> Plant Reproduction : Double fertilization
=> Development of dicot embryo
=> Parthenogenesis and parthenocarpy
=> Germination of Seed : Parts of Seed
=> Process of seed germination
=> Types of seed germination : Epigeal, Hypogeal germination, Vivipary
=> Factors necessary for seed gamination
=> Abscission and Importance of Abscission
=> senescence : Types, Physiology , Importance of senescence

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY


=> Organisms and their Environment
=> Organisms : Environmental Climatic Factors
=> Organisms : Environment : Edaphic Factors
=> Organisms : Environmental factors - Climatic, Edaphic, Biotic
=> Relationships among Organisms : Positive and Negative Interactions
=> Hydrophytes And Classification of Hydrophytes
=> Morphological and Anatomical adaptations of Hydrophytes
=> Xerophytes and Classification of Xerophytes
=> Morphological, Anatomical and Physiological Adaptations of Xerophytes
=> Mesophytes
=> natural resources and Types of natural resources
=> Sources of Energy resources
=> Conservation of Energy
=> Forest Resources
=> Social Forestry and Conservation of Forests
=> Conservation of Water and Types of Harvesting Rainwater

TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS


=> TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS : Types of classification
=> Biosystematics nomenclature
=> Binomial nomenclature
=> Herbaria and uses, Importance of Herbaria
=> Bentham and Hooker's classification of plants : Dicotyledonae, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledonae
=> Merits and Demerits of Bentham and Hooker's classification of plants
=> DICOT FAMILIES : MALVACEAE - the cotton family
=> Botanical description of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
=> FABACEAE - the bean family
=> Botanical description and Economical of Clitoria ternatea
=> RUBIACEAE - the coffee family
=> Botanical description and Economic Importance of Ixora coccinea
=> ASTERACEAE - the sunflower family
=> Botanical description and Economic importance of Tridax procumbens
=> SOLANACEAE - the potato family
=> Botanical description and Economic importance of Datura metal
=> EUPHORBIACEAE - the castor family
=> Botanical description and Economic importance of Ricinus communis
=> MUSACEAE - the banana family Systematic position
=> Botanical description and Economical importance of Musa paradisiaca
=> ARECACEAE - the palm family
=> Botanical description and Economic importance of Cocos nucifera

PLANT ANATOMY


=> Classification and Characteristics of meristematic cells
=> Classification of permanent tissue : Simple and Complex tissue
=> Permanent Simple tissue Types : parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma
=> Permanent Complex tissue and Types : Xylem, Phloem
=> Phloem : Sieve elements, Companion cells, Phloem parenchyma, Phloem fibres
=> Epidermal tissue system and its functions
=> Vascular tissue system
=> Ground or fundamental tissue system
=> Primary structure of monocotyledonous root - Maize root
=> Primary structure of dicotyledonous root - Bean root
=> Primary structure of monocot stem - Maize stem
=> Primary structure of dicotyledonous stem - Sunflower stem
=> Anatomy of a dicot leaf - Sunflower leaf
=> Anatomy of a monocot leaf - Grass leaf
=> Secondary growth in dicot stem

CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS


=> Structure of chromosome
=> Types of chromosomes
=> Special types of chromosomes
=> Gene and genome
=> Linkage and crossing over
=> Significance of crossing over and Uses of gene mapping
=> Recombination of chromosome
=> Gene mutation : Significance, Classification, Mutagenic agents
=> Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations
=> Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations
=> Hereditary role of DNA - Bacterial transformation
=> Structure of DNA
=> Function and Replication of DNA
=> Structure of RNA and its types
=> Characteristics of genetic code and Central dogma of molecular biology

BIOTECHNOLOGY


=> Recombinant DNA technology
=> Gene transfer in plants
=> How DNA is cut?
=> Transgenic plants : foreign gene, Transgenic (modified) plants
=> Practical application of genetic transformation
=> Use of genetically engineered bacterial strain
=> Concept of Plant tissue culture
=> Applications of plant tissue culture
=> Basic techniques of plant tissue culture
=> Protoplast fusion : Isolation of protoplast - Mechanical and Enzymatic method
=> Single cell protein (SCP)

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY


=> Enzymes : Classification, Properties of Enzymes
=> Theories explaining the mechanism of enzyme action
=> Significance of photosynthesis
=> Site of photosynthesis
=> Photochemical and biosynthetic phases, Mechanism of photosynthesis
=> EXPERIMENTS ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS : 1.Ganong's light screen 2.Test tube and funnel experiment
=> Plant Mode of nutrition
=> Chemosynthesis - Chemosynthetic autotrophs and heterotrophs
=> Plant Respiration and structure of ATP
=> Plant Respiration : Glycolysis
=> Plant Respiration : Krebs cycle and Significance of Krebs cycle
=> Plant Respiration : Electron transport chain
=> Plant Respiration : Pentose phosphate pathway
=> Kuhne's fermentation tube experiment
=> Plant growth and Measurement of plant growth
=> auxins and Physiological effects of auxin
=> Gibberellins and Physiological effects of gibberellin
=> Physiological effects of cytokinin, ethylene, abscisic acid
=> Photoperiodism and vernalization

BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE


=> BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE : Food production
=> Plant breeding : Aims, Major Aspects of plant breeding
=> Plant Breeding : Selection
=> Plant Breeding : Hybridization, Mutation breeding
=> Plant breeding : Genetic engineering
=> Role of biofertilizers and Benefits from biofertilizers
=> Plant Disease in Rice - Oryza sativa
=> Plant Tikka disease in Groundnut or peanut - Arachis hypogea
=> Citrus canker and Tungro disease of rice
=> Biopesticides and Biocontrol of insect pests
=> Genetically modified food : Edible, Edible, Edible antibodies
=> Bio-war
=> Bio-piracy
=> Bio-patent
=> Sustained agriculture
=> Medicinal plants including microbes
=> Commonly available medicinal plants and microbes
=> Economic importance Plants : Food, Rice, Oil, Fibre, Timber yielding plant



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