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Taxonomy and Phylogeny
Two Kingdom System of Classification
The Five Kingdom System of Classification
Viruses - Introduction And General characteristics
Viruses : Size, Shape And Structure of a Virus
Classification of virus
Lytic and Lysogenic Life cycle of a phage
Plant viral disease : Bunchy top of banana, HIV, cancer, SARS Virion
A new disease called SARS Virion
Bacteria : Introduction, Occurrence, Size
Classification of bacteria based on the shape and arrangement
Flagellation in Bacteria
Nutrition in Plant Bacteria
Respiration in Plant Bacteria
Reproduction of Bacteria
Harmful activities of Bacteria in Plants, Animal, Human beings
Beneficial Activities of Bacteria
Fungi : Salient and Distinguishing Features, Structure, Nutrition, Saprotrophs
Fungai : Saprotrophs and Parasites
Fungi Symbiosis
Classification of Fungi
Economic importance of Fungi : Useful and Harmful aspects of fungi
Mucor : Occurrence, Reproduction, Somatic structure
Algae : Salient Features, Occurrence and Distribution, Thallus organization
Algae : Cell Structure & Pigmentation
Algea : Arranagement of Flagella
Algea Reproduction : 1. Vegetative 2. Asexual 3. Sexual
Classification of Algea
Economic Importance of Algae - Food, Agriculture, Industry, space travel, Single cell protein, Sewage Disposal
Harmful effects of Algae
Spirogyra : Detail, Occurrence, Structure
Algea : Reproduction
Bryophytes : Salient and Distinguishing features of Bryophytes
Bryophytes : Alternation of Generations
Classification of Bryophyta
Riccia And The structure of mature gametophyte
Reproduction of Riccia
Riccia - Fertilization, Sporophyte Generation
Life cycle of Riccia
Pteridophytes : Salient features and Salient features
Characteristics of Pteridophytes and Economic importance
Morphology of sporophyte
Anatomy of Nephrolepsis
Reproduction of Nephrolepsis
Nephrolepsis : Fertilization
Classification and Characteristic of Spermatophytes(Gymnosperms)
Salient features and Distinguishing features of Gymnosperms
Cycas - Morphology of sporophyte
Anatomy of Cycas
Cycas - Reproduction


A brief history about the discovery of cells
Dynamic nature of cell , Difference Between Plant Cell And Animal cell
Development of Cell Theory And Exception to cell Theory
prokaryotic cell And Ultra structure of a prokaryotic cell
Different Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell (Plant Cells)
Light Microscope and Electron Microscope (TEM - Transmission Electron Microscopy & SEM - Scanning Electron Microscope )
Formation of the cell wall
Structure of the cell wall
Plasmodesmata, pits and Functions of cell wall
Ultra structure of the cell membrane - Fluid mosaic Model, Lipids, Proteins
Functions of plasma membrane
Cell Membrane Transport
List of Plant Cell Organelles
Plant Cell Nucleus And Functions of Plant Cell Nucleus
Plant Cell Mitochondria - Power house of the cell
Plant Cell Plastids - chloroplasts, chromoplasts and leucoplasts
Plant Cell : Ribosomes
Plant Cell Division - Cell Cycle 1.Amitosis 2.Mitosis 3. Meiosis
Cell Division : Mitotic cell cycle : 1.Prophase 2. Metaphase 3.Anaphase 4. Telophase
Cell Division - Meiosis Cell Cycle : Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase


Morphology of flowering plants or Angiosperms - short notes
Plant - Root System : Regions of a typical root and General Characteristic features of the root
Types of Root System And Functions of roots
Root Modifications for Taproot, adventitious roots
Characteristic features and Functions of the stem
Modifications of stem : 1. Aerial modifications 2. Sub aerial modifications 3. Under ground modifications
Parts of a Leaf : 1. Leaf base 2. Petiole 3. Lamina
Leaf Venation : Reticulate, Parallel : Pinnately, Palmately
Leaf Modification
Inflorescence : Racemose, Cymose, Mixed and Special types
FLOWER - A Metamorphosed Shoot : Evidences to support that flower is a modified shoot
Description of a flower
Types of Placentation : Axile,Marginal, Parietal, Basal, Superficial Placentation
Androecium And Gynoecium
Plant Aestivation And Types of Aestivation
Corolla : Shape of the petals in the corolla and Forms of Corolla
Calyx : Variations and Duration of calyx
The receptacle (thalamus) : Variation of the Receptacle, Insertion of floral leaves on the thalamus
Parts of a flower
Fruit : Types and Structure of fruit
Simple fleshy fruits : baccate,drupaceous - Berry, Drupe, Hesperidium, Pepo, Pomo
Simple Dry Fruits - .1. Dehiscent 2. Schizocarpic 3. Indehiscent
aggregate and multiple or composite fruits
Structure and Types of Seed
Structure of gram seed
Structure of Maize Grain


GENETICS : Concept of Heredity and Variation
Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
Intermediate Inheritance (Incomplete Dominance)
Epistasis - Gene Interaction
Inheritance Laws of Mendel
Biography of Mendel And Mendel's Experiments on Mendel's Laws of Inheritance


Cell as a Physiological Unit
Properties of Protoplasm : The Physical and Chemical Nature
Cell - Water Relations
Cells : Absorption and Movement - Imbibition, Diffusion
Demonstration of Osmosis - Potato Osmoscope
Plasmolysis and Significance of Plasmolysis
Plant Cells : Permeability and Water Potential
Water Transport in Plant
Transpiration Pull Theory in plant water transport
Factors Affecting Rate of Transpiration in Plant
Structure of Stoma and Mechanism of Stomatal Opening and Closing
Factors Affecting Stomatal Movement
Functions of Minerals Nutrition
Hydroponics : Advantages and Disavantagges of Hydroponics
Essential Major Elements and Trace Elements for Plant
Plant Physiological Role and Deficiency Symptoms of Mineral Elements
Theories of Translocation for Plant : Passive absorption and Active Absorption
Plant Physiology : Translocation of Solutes
Plant Physiology : Nitrogen Metabolism
Plant Movements : Movements of locomotion and curvature
Phototropism And Turgor Growth Movements


Reproduction in Angiosperms : Vegetative Propagation
Natural Methods of Vegetative Propagation : Root, Stem, Leaves
Advantages of Vegetative propagation
Artificial Method of Vegetative Propagation : Cuttings, Grafting
Reproduction in Angiosperm : Micropropagation
Self Pollination - Sexual Reproduction : 1. autogamy 2. geitonogamy
Cross Pollination (Xenogamy, Allogamy) - Sexual Reproduction
Development of male and female gametophyte
Development of female gametophyte : Megasporophyll, Megasporangium or ovule, Megasporogenesis
Types of Plant Ovule
Plant Reproduction : Double fertilization
Development of dicot embryo
Parthenogenesis and parthenocarpy
Germination of Seed : Parts of Seed
Process of seed germination
Types of seed germination : Epigeal, Hypogeal germination, Vivipary
Factors necessary for seed gamination
Abscission and Importance of Abscission
senescence : Types, Physiology , Importance of senescence


Organisms and their Environment
Organisms : Environmental Climatic Factors
Organisms : Environment : Edaphic Factors
Organisms : Environmental factors - Climatic, Edaphic, Biotic
Relationships among Organisms : Positive and Negative Interactions
Hydrophytes And Classification of Hydrophytes
Morphological and Anatomical adaptations of Hydrophytes
Xerophytes and Classification of Xerophytes
Morphological, Anatomical and Physiological Adaptations of Xerophytes
natural resources and Types of natural resources
Sources of Energy resources
Conservation of Energy
Forest Resources
Social Forestry and Conservation of Forests
Conservation of Water and Types of Harvesting Rainwater


TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS : Types of classification
Biosystematics nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
Herbaria and uses, Importance of Herbaria
Bentham and Hooker's classification of plants : Dicotyledonae, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledonae
Merits and Demerits of Bentham and Hooker's classification of plants
DICOT FAMILIES : MALVACEAE - the cotton family
Botanical description of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
FABACEAE - the bean family
Botanical description and Economical of Clitoria ternatea
RUBIACEAE - the coffee family
Botanical description and Economic Importance of Ixora coccinea
ASTERACEAE - the sunflower family
Botanical description and Economic importance of Tridax procumbens
SOLANACEAE - the potato family
Botanical description and Economic importance of Datura metal
EUPHORBIACEAE - the castor family
Botanical description and Economic importance of Ricinus communis
MUSACEAE - the banana family Systematic position
Botanical description and Economical importance of Musa paradisiaca
ARECACEAE - the palm family
Botanical description and Economic importance of Cocos nucifera


Classification and Characteristics of meristematic cells
Classification of permanent tissue : Simple and Complex tissue
Permanent Simple tissue Types : parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma
Permanent Complex tissue and Types : Xylem, Phloem
Phloem : Sieve elements, Companion cells, Phloem parenchyma, Phloem fibres
Epidermal tissue system and its functions
Vascular tissue system
Ground or fundamental tissue system
Primary structure of monocotyledonous root - Maize root
Primary structure of dicotyledonous root - Bean root
Primary structure of monocot stem - Maize stem
Primary structure of dicotyledonous stem - Sunflower stem
Anatomy of a dicot leaf - Sunflower leaf
Anatomy of a monocot leaf - Grass leaf
Secondary growth in dicot stem


Structure of chromosome
Types of chromosomes
Special types of chromosomes
Gene and genome
Linkage and crossing over
Significance of crossing over and Uses of gene mapping
Recombination of chromosome
Gene mutation : Significance, Classification, Mutagenic agents
Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations
Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations
Hereditary role of DNA - Bacterial transformation
Structure of DNA
Function and Replication of DNA
Structure of RNA and its types
Characteristics of genetic code and Central dogma of molecular biology


Recombinant DNA technology
Gene transfer in plants
How DNA is cut?
Transgenic plants : foreign gene, Transgenic (modified) plants
Practical application of genetic transformation
Use of genetically engineered bacterial strain
Concept of Plant tissue culture
Applications of plant tissue culture
Basic techniques of plant tissue culture
Protoplast fusion : Isolation of protoplast - Mechanical and Enzymatic method
Single cell protein (SCP)


Enzymes : Classification, Properties of Enzymes
Theories explaining the mechanism of enzyme action
Significance of photosynthesis
Site of photosynthesis
Photochemical and biosynthetic phases, Mechanism of photosynthesis
EXPERIMENTS ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS : 1.Ganong's light screen 2.Test tube and funnel experiment
Plant Mode of nutrition
Chemosynthesis - Chemosynthetic autotrophs and heterotrophs
Plant Respiration and structure of ATP
Plant Respiration : Glycolysis
Plant Respiration : Krebs cycle and Significance of Krebs cycle
Plant Respiration : Electron transport chain
Plant Respiration : Pentose phosphate pathway
Kuhne's fermentation tube experiment
Plant growth and Measurement of plant growth
auxins and Physiological effects of auxin
Gibberellins and Physiological effects of gibberellin
Physiological effects of cytokinin, ethylene, abscisic acid
Photoperiodism and vernalization


Plant breeding : Aims, Major Aspects of plant breeding
Plant Breeding : Selection
Plant Breeding : Hybridization, Mutation breeding
Plant breeding : Genetic engineering
Role of biofertilizers and Benefits from biofertilizers
Plant Disease in Rice - Oryza sativa
Plant Tikka disease in Groundnut or peanut - Arachis hypogea
Citrus canker and Tungro disease of rice
Biopesticides and Biocontrol of insect pests
Genetically modified food : Edible, Edible, Edible antibodies
Sustained agriculture
Medicinal plants including microbes
Commonly available medicinal plants and microbes
Economic importance Plants : Food, Rice, Oil, Fibre, Timber yielding plant

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