Plant Tissue Culture
Growing plant protoplasts, cells, tissues or organs away from their natural or normal environment, under artificial condition, is known as Tissue Culture. It is also known as in vitro (In vitro is a Latin word, it means that - in glass or in test-tube) growth of plant protoplasts, cells, tissues and organs. A single explant can be multiplied into several thousand plants in short time period and space under controlled conditions.
Tissue culture techniques are often used for commercial production of plants as well as for plant research. Plant tissue culture serves as an indispensable tool for regeneration of transgenic plants. Apart from this some of the main applications of Plant tissue culture are clonal propagation of elite varieties, conservation of endangered plants, production of virus-free plants, germplasm preservation, industrial production of secondary metabolites. etc., In this chapter let us discuss the history , techniques, types , applications of plant tissue culture and get aware on ethical issues.
Gottlieb Haberlandt (1902) the German Botanist proposed the concept Totipotency and he was also the first person to culture plant cells in artificial conditions using the mesophyll cells of Lamium purpureum in culture medium and obtained cell proliferation. He is regarded as the father of tissue culture.