Plant Regeneration Pathway
From the explants, plants can be regenerated by somatic
embryogenesis or organogenesis.
Somatic embryogenesis is the formation of embryos from the callus
tissue directly and these embryos are called Embryoids or from the in
vitro cells directly form pre-embryonic cells which differentiate into
Somatic embryogenesis provides potential plantlets which after
hardening period can establish into plants.
Somatic embryoids can be be used for the production of synthetic
Somatic embryogenesis is now reported in many plants such as Allium
sativum, Hordeum vulgare, Oryza sativa, Zea mays and this possible
in any plant.
The morphological changes occur in the callus leading to the
formation of shoot and roots is called organogenesis.
Organogenesis can be induced in vitro by introducing plant growth
regulators in the MS medium.
Auxin and cytokinins induce shoot and root formation.