Ecology is a division of biology and deals with the study of
environment in relation to organisms. Ecology is mainly divided into two
branches Autecology and Synecology. The environment (surrounding) includes
physical, chemical and biological components. These factors can be classified
into living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic), which make the environment of an
organism. The ecological factors are meaningfully grouped into four classes,
which are as follows:
1. Climatic factors Edaphic factors 3. Topographic factors 4.
Climate is one of the important natural factors controlling the
plant life. The climatic factors includes light, temperature, water, wind,
fire, etc. Edaphic factors, the abiotic factors related to soil, include the
physical and chemical composition of the soil formed in a particular area. The
surface features of earth are called topography. Topographic influence on the
climate of any area is determined by the interaction of solar radiation,
temperature, humidity ,rainfall, latitude and altitude. The interactions among
living organisms, the plants and animals are called biotic factors, which may
cause marked effects upon vegetation.
The modifications in the structure of organisms to survive
successfully in an environment are called adaptations of organisms. Based on
the habitats and the corresponding adaptations of plants, they are classified
into 1) Hydrophytes 2) Xerophytes 3) Mesophytes 4) Epiphytes and 5)
Halophytes. The dissemination of seeds and fruits to various distances from the
parent plant is called seed and fruit dispersal. It takes place
with the help of ecological factors such as wind, water and animals.
An association of two organisms which is harmful to one of them.
A major regional community of plants and animals with similar life forms and
The envelope containing all living organisms on earth.
A group of organism living in the same place.
The kinds of plants in region
Fruit eating organisms
(Temperature less than 70°C) Where very low temperature prevails and the
dominant vegetation is alpine vegetation.
The visible features of an area of land.
Twining vines with woody stems, common in forest of warm climate.
(Temperature more than 240°C) Where high temperature prevails throughout the
year and the dominant vegetation is tropical rain forest.
(Temperature ranges between 170°C and 240°C) Where high temperature alternates
with low temperature and the dominant vegetation is tropical deciduous forest.
(Temperature ranges between 70°C and 170°C) Where low temperature prevails and
the dominant vegetation is mixed coniferous forest.
A group of individuals of a single species.
type of stomata: Stomata opens during night in succulent
plants and closes during the day.
When seeds or embryos begin to develop before they detach from the parent.