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6000 BC – 3000 BC – Bread making, fermentation of fruit juices and plant exudates to produce alcoholic beverages using yeast.
1770 – Antoine Lavoisier gave chemical basis of alcoholic fermentation.
1798 – Edward Jenner uses first viral vaccine to inoculate a child from smallpox.
1838 – Protein discovered, named and recorded by Gerardus Johannes Mulder and Jons Jacob Berzelius.
1871 – Ernst Hoppe, Seyler discovered enzyme invertase, which is still used for making artificial sweeteners.
1876 – Louis Pasteur identified role of microorganisms in fermentation.
1919 – The term biotechnology was coined by Karl Ereky
1928 – Discovery of Penicillin by Alexander Fleming
1941 – Experiment with Neurospora crassa resulting in one gene one enzyme hypothesis by George Beadle and Edward Tatum.
1944 – Identification of DNA as the genetic material Avery–MacLeod–McCarty
1953 – Discovery of double helix structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick.
1972 – Discovery of Restriction enzymes by Arber, Smith and Nathans.
1973 – Fragmentation of DNA-combined with Plasmid DNA, r-DNA technology - Genetic engineering -Modified gene by Stanley Cohen, Annie Chang, Robert Helling and Herbert Boyer.
1975 – Production of Monoclonal antibodies by Kohler and Milstein
1976 – Sanger and Gilbert developed techniques to sequence DNA
1978 – Production of human insulin in E.Coli
1979 – Development of Artificial gene – functioning within the living cells by H.G. Khorana
1982 – U.S approved humulin ( human insulin) the first pharmaceutical product of rDNA technology, for human use.
1983 – Use of Ti plasmids to genetically transform plants
1986 – Development of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology by Kary Mullis.
1987 – Gene transfer by biolistic transformation
1992 – First chromosomes of yeast is sequenced
1994 – U.S approved the first Genetically Modified food: Flavr Savr tomato.
1997 – The first transgenic animal, mammalian sheep, Dolly developed by nuclear cloning by Ian Wilmet.
2000 – First plant Genome of Arabidopsis thaliana sequenced
2001 – Human genome Project creates a draft of the human genome sequence.
2002 – First crop plant genome sequenced in Oryza sativa
2003 – Human genome project is completed, providing information on the locations and sequence of human genes on all 46 chromosomes.
2010 – Sir Robert G. Edwards developed in vitro fertilization in animal.
2016 – Stem cells injected into stroke patients re-enable patient to walk – Stem cell therapy
2017 – Blood stem cells grown in lab.
2018 – James Allison and TasukuHonjo discovered protein found in immune cells. This found a new role in cancer therapy.
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