Botany : Principles and Processes of Biotechnology
3’ Hydroxy end: The hydroxyl group attached to 3’ carbon atom of sugar of the terminal nucleotide of a nucleic acid.
Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC): A cloning vector for isolation of genomic DNA constructed on the basis of F-factor.
Chimeric DNA: A recombinant DNA molecule containing unrelated genes.
Cleave: To break phosphodiester bonds of dsDNA, usually with a restriction enzyme.
Cloning site: A location on a cloning vector into which DNA can be inserted.
Cloning: Incorporation of a DNA molecule into a chromosomal site or a cloning vector.
Cloning Vector: A small, self-replicating DNA inserted in a cloning gene.
COS sites: The 12-base, single strand, complementary extension of phage lambda (l) DNA.
DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that catalyses the phosphodiester bond in the formation of DNA.
Endonucleases: An enzyme that catalyses the cleavage of DNA at internal position, cutting DNA at specific sites.
Genome: The entire complement of genetic material of an organism.
Insert DNA: A DNA molecule incorporated into a cloning vector.
Ligase: An enzyme used in genetic engineering experiment to join the cut ends of dsDNA.
M-13: AssDNA bacteriophage used as vector for DNA sequencing.
Phagemid: A cloning vector that contains components derived from both phage DNA and plasmid.
Plasmid: Extrachromosomal, self-replicating, circular dsDNA containing some non-essential genes.
Restriction map: A linear array of sites on DNA cleaved by various restriction enzymes.
Shuttle Vector: A plasmid cloning vector that can replicate in two different organisms due to the presence of two different origin of replication OriEUK and OriE. coli
Taq polymerase: A heat stable DNA polymerase isolated from a thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus.
Vectors: Vehicles for transferring DNA from one cell to another.
Biofuel: Fuels like hydrogen, ethanol and methanol produced from a biological source by the action of microorganisms.
Bioleaching: Process of using microorganisms to recover metals from their ores or contaminant environment
Bioremediation: Process of using organisms to remove or reduce pollutants from the environment.
Green Technology: Pollution-free technology in which pollution is controlled at source.
Phytoremediation: Use of certain plants to remove contaminants or pollutants from the environment (soil, water or air).
Recombinant: Cell / Organism formed by a recombination of genes.
Transformation: Process of transferring a foreign DNA into a cell and changing its genome.
Vector: Agent used in recombinant DNA technique to carry new genes into foreign cells.
Wild Type: Natural form of organisms.