Advancements in Modern Biotechnology
The modern biotechnology embraces all the genetic manipulations,
protoplasmic fusion techniques and the improvements made in the old
biotechnological processes. Some of the major advancements in modern
biotechnology are described below.
Genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology or gene cloning is a collective term that includes different experimental protocols resulting in the modification Bacterium and transfer of DNA from one organism to another.
The definition for conventional recombination was already given in Unit II. Conventional
recombination involves exchange or recombination of
genes between homologous chromosomes during
meiosis. Recombination carried out artificially using
modern technology is called recombinant DNA technology (r-DNA technology). It
is also known as gene manipulation technique. This technique involves the
transfer of DNA coding for a specific gene from one organism into another
organism using specific agents like vectors or using instruments like
electroporation, gene gun, liposome mediated, chemical mediated transfers and
The steps involved in recombinant DNA technology are:
Isolation of a DNA fragment containing a gene of interest that
needs to be cloned. This is called an insert.
Generation of recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecule by insertion of the
DNA fragment into a carrier molecule called a vector that can
self-replicate within the host cell.
Selection of the transformed host cells that is carrying the rDNA
and allowing them to multiply thereby multiplying the rDNA molecule.
• The entire process thus generates either a large amount of
rDNA or a large amount of protein expressed by the insert.
• Wherever vectors are not involved the desired gene
is multiplied by PCR technique. The multiple copies are injected into the host
cell protoplast or it is shot into the host cell protoplast by shot gun method.