Agrochemicals and their effects
An agro-chemical is useful in managing agriculture or in farming area which is one of the major issues of the environment. Agro- chemicals includes fertilizers, liming and acidifying agents, soil conditioners, pesticides and chemicals used in animal husbandry, such as antibiotics and hormones.
Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides leads to the contamination of groundwater and makes it nonpotable, ultimately affecting the soil fertility. Most of the chemical fertilizers contain varying amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and nutrients that plants need to grow. Soil acidity influences C and N cycles by affecting soil microbes, also green house gas flux in soils and affect bio availability of N, P, S like major nutrients. This makes the soil too acidic or alkaline so that it becomes difficult for the plants to survive. These residues and synthetic chemicals like DDT (dichloro diphenyl trichloro ethane) and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) cause nutrient and pH imbalance and quality reduction of agricultural produce. This problem can be minimised by sustainable agriculture.
Pesticides increase incidence of brain, blood cancer and neurotoxicity, Parkinson like symptoms, infertility, birth defects, reproductive and behavioural disorders.