Agroforestry is an integration of trees, crops and livestock on
the same plot of land. The main objective is on the interaction among them .
Example: intercropping of two or more crops between different species of trees
and shrubs, which results in higher yielding and reducing the operation costs.
This intentional combination of agriculture and forestry has varied benefits
including increased bio-diversity and reduced erosion.
Some of the major species cultivated in commercial Agroforestry
include Casuarina, Eucalyptus, Malai Vembu, Teak and Kadambu trees
which were among the 20 species identified as commercial timber. They are of
great importance to wood-based industries.
It is an answer to the problem of soil and water conservation and
also to stabilise the soil (salinity and water table) reduce landslide and
water run-off problem.
Nutrient cycling between species improves and organic matter is
Trees provide micro climate for crops and maintain O2 –
CO2 balanced, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity.
Suitable for dry land where rainfall is minimum and hence it is a
good system for alternate land use pattern.
Multipurpose tree varieties like Acacia are used for wood
pulp, tanning, paper and firewood industries.
Agro-forestry is recommended for the following purposes. It can be
used as Farm Forestry for the extension of forests, mixed forestry, shelter
belts and linear strip plantation.
The production of woody plants combined with pasture is referred
to silvopasture system. The trees and shrubs may be used primarily to
produce fodder for livestock or they may be grown for timber, fuel wood and
fruit or to improve the soil.
This system is classified into following categories.
i. Protein Bank: In this various
multipurpose trees are planted in and around farm lands and range lands
mainly for fodder production.
Example: Acacia nilotica, Albizzia lebbek, Azadirachta indica,
Gliricidia sepium, Sesbania grandiflora.
ii. Livefence of fodder trees
and hedges: Various fodder trees and
hedges are planted as live fence to protect the property from stray animals or
other biotic influences.
Example: Gliricidia sepium, Sesbania grandiflora, Erythrina spp., Acacia spp..
It refers to the sustainable management of forests by local
communities with a goal of climate carbon sequestration, change mitigation,
depollution, deforestation, forest restoration and providing indirect
employment opportunity for the youth. Social forestry refers to the management
of forests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of
helping the environmental, social and rural development and benefits.
Forestry programme is done for the benefit of people and participation of the
people. Trees grown outside forests by government and public organisation
reduce the pressure on forests.
In order to encourage tree cultivation outside forests, Tree
cultivation in Private Lands was implemented in the state from 2007-08 to
2011-12 It was
implemented by carrying out block planting and inter-crop planting with
profitable tree species like Teak, Casuarina, Ailanthus, Silver Oak,
etc. in the farming lands and by a free supply of profitable tree species for
planting in the bunds. The Tank foreshore plantations have been a major
source of firewood in Tamil Nadu. The 32 Forestry extension centres
provide technical support for tree growing in rural areas in Tamil Nadu. These
centres provide quality tree seedlings like thorn / thornless bamboo, casuarinas,
teak, neem, Melia dubia, grafted tamarind and nelli, etc. in private
lands and creating awareness among students by training / camps.
Training on tree growing methods
Publicity and propaganda regarding tree growing
Formation of demonstration plots
Raising and supply of seedlings on subsidy
Awareness creation among school children and youth about the
importance of forests through training and camps.