As mentioned earlier, the ovary becomes the fruit and the ovule becomes the seed after fertilization. However in a number of cases, fruit like structures may develop from the ovary without the act of fertilization. Such fruits are called parthenocarpic fruits. Invariably they will not have true seeds. Many commercial fruits are made seedless. Examples: Banana, Grapes and Papaya.
Nitsch in 1963 classified the parthenocarpy into following types:
Parthenocarpy arises due to hybridization or mutation Examples: Citrus,Cucurbita.
Environmental conditions like frost, fog, low temperature, high temperature etc., induce Parthenocarpy. For example, low temperature for 3-19 hours induces parthenocarpy in Pear.
Application of growth promoting substances like Auxins and Gibberellins induces parthenocarpy.
· The seedless fruits have great significance in horticulture.
· The seedless fruits have great commercial importance.
· Seedless fruits are useful for the preparation of jams, jellies, sauces, fruit drinks etc.
· High proportion of edible part is available in parthenocarpic fruits due to the absence of seeds.