Botanical description of Allium cepa
(In APG classification, Allium cepa is placed under the family Amaryllidaceae)
Habit: Perennial herb with bulb.
Root: Fibrous adventitious root system
Stem: Underground bulb
Leaf: a cluster of radical leaves emerges from the underground bulb, cylindrical and fleshy having sheathy leaf bases with parallel venation.
Inflorescence: Scapigerous i.e. the inflorescence axis (peduncle) arising from the ground bearing a cluster of flowers at its apex. Pedicels are of equal length, arising from the apex of the peduncle which brings all flowers at the same level.
Flower: Small, white, bracteate, ebrcteolate, pedicellate, complete, trimerous, actinomorphic and hypogynous. Flowers are protandrous.
Perianth: Tepals 6, white,arranged in two whorls of three each, syntepalous showing valvate aestivation.
Androecium: Stamens 6, arranged in two whorls of three each, epitepalous, apostamenous /free and opposite to tepals. Anthers dithecous, basifixed, introse, and dehiscing longitudinally.
Gynoecium: Tricarpellary and syncarpous. Ovary superior, trilocular with two ovules in each locule on axile placentation. Style simple, slender with simple stigma.
Fruit: A loculicidal capsule.