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Chapter: Biology: Economic Biology (Botany)

Medicinal Plants

People of Bangladesh have been using plants for treatment of diseases from time immemorial. These plants are used as medicine, known as medicinal plants.

Medicinal Plants:


People of Bangladesh have been using plants for treatment of diseases from time immemorial. These plants are used as medicine, known as medicinal plants. Brief description of ten medicinal plants is given below:.


1. Arjun (Terminalia arjuna):The plant is a trees in nature. Leaves are simple,opposite and look like the leaves of Guava.


Fruits are with ridges and furrows like Kamranga.

Part Used: Bark of the tree.


Uses: The main use is in heart diseases. It issaid that, the bark of Arjun is being pasted and mixed with sugar, and milk and if it is taken everyday morning, cure almost all heart diseases.


2. Kalomegh (Andrographis peniculata) : Itis a small herbaceous plant. Usually attaine a height of 1-3 ft. Leaves are simple and opposite .

More or less elongated It gives flowers fruits from the end of rainy season up to the winter. The leaves are quite bitter. It is sold in the market in the name of Chirata, though it is not real, Chirata.

Part used: The whole plant, particularly the leaves.

Uses: It is a good medicine for children in the treatment of fever, intestinalworms, indigestion and malfunctioning of liver. One teaspoonful of leaf extract is to be taken.


3. Tulshi (Ocimum sanctum):It is a well-known small herb or shrub. Usually it attains a height of 2-4 feet. Stem is quadrangular. Leaves are simple, opposite, more or less ovate with sweet smell. It gives flowers and fruits in winter.

Part used: Leaves.

Uses: Leaf extract is very effective in Coughand cold. Usually leaf extract is given to the children with honey and zinger extract.

4. Thankuni (Centella asiatica):It is a Small

creeper. From every node it gives roots from below and Leaves and branches from above. leaves are simple, alternate, kidney shaped, usually 0.5 to 2 inches in length.

Part   used: The    whole          plant, especiallleaves.


Uses: It is well used in our country especiallyin the treatment of stomach disorder particularly - indigestion and

dysentery of children. Thankuni increases longevity of life, increases memory and intelligence. It is also used in dysentery and blood-dysentery and different types of skin diseases.


5.-Durba (Cynodon dactylon):It is well. known grass of our country. Jt is aknown perennial herbaceous creeper.


Part used: The whole plant.


Uses: It is a very effective in fresh wounds, where it clots blood to stop thebleeding. Usually young leaves are pasted or masticated and applied in the wounds. Besides, the extract of it is being mixed and boiled with sesame oil and is used as a curative for skin diseases and hair fall.

6. Neem (Azadivachta indica):It is a well-known plant in our country. Leavesare compound, small, white flowers with sweet smell borne on long rachis of the inflorescence. Fruits are green in unripe condition but ripe fruits are yellowish in colour.


Part used: Bark, leaves and small branches.


Uses: Bath in the water boiled with Neem leaves that cures various skindiseases. Taking of pasted bark mixed with salt in an empty stomach kills intestinal worms. Leaves pasted with turmeric cure scabies and itches. In our country small branches are mostly used as toothbrush.


7. Banorlathi Or Sonalu (Cassia fistula):It is a medium size tree. Leaves arecompound. Each leaf bears 4-8 pairs of leaflets. Its yellow flowers remain hanging down in a long inflorescence axis. Fruits are long and slender.


Part Used: Matrix Of fruit.


Uses: The fruit matrix is a good purgative. It is used in constipation, stomachPain and dyspepsia. 6-7 grams of fruit matrix are taken in the morning with one cup of hot milk. It also improves tonsillitis and rheumatism.


8. Basak (Adhatoda vasica):It is a shrubby plant. Usually attains a height of7-8 feet. Leaves are simple, alternate.

Part used: Leaves.

Uses: Leaf extract is mostly used in curingcough. It is very effective in the treatment of cough and cold, and asthma. The leaf extract is more effective if it is taken with equal volume of zinger extract and honey.


9. Bel (Aegle marmelos): It is a wellkownfruit-yielding tree. Leaves are compound with three leaflets. Flowers are geeenish white in colour. Fruits Aare round and large.

Part used: Leaves and fruitsUses: As medicine mostly unripe fruits areused. Green fruit are cut into circular pieces and dried in the sun. They are popularly known as Bel Shunt. It is very effective in diarrhea, blood dysentery and other intestinal diseases. Memory gradually increases if the leaf is taken with sugar after frying it in Ghee.


10. Sarpagondha


Rouwolfia sarpentina : It is a perennialshrub. It attains a height of about 1-2.5 feet. Each node usually bears 3 leaves. It gives flowers and fruit in rainy season. Ripe fruit is black in colour.


Part used: Bark of roots. The bark is collected in the winter.


Uses: Powder or extract of bark is used to control high blood pressure. It is alsoused in the treatment of mentally disordered people.


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