The interaction between biotic and abiotic components in an
environment is called ecosystem. Autotrophs and heterotrophs are the producers
and consumers respectively. The function of ecosystem refers to creation of
energy, flow of energy and cycling of nutrients. The amount of light available for
photosynthesis is called Photo synthetically Active Radiation . It is essential
for increase in the productivity of ecosystem. The rate of biomass production
per unit area /time is called productivity. It is classified as primary
productivity, secondary productivity and community productivity. The transfer
of energy in an ecosystem can be termed as energy flow. It is explained through
the food chain, food web , ecological pyramids ( pyramid of number, biomass and
energy ) and biogeochemical cycle. Cycling of nutrients between abiotic and
biotic components is evident in the pond ecosystem, making itself self
sufficient and self regulating Ecosystem protected for the welfare of posterity
is called ecosystem management.
Successive replacement of one type of plant community by the other
of the same area/ place is known as plant succession. The first invaded plants
in a barren (nude) area are called pioneers (pioneers communities). On the
other hand, a series of transitional developments of plant communities one
after another in a given area are called seral communities. Succession is
classified as primary succession, secondary succession, autogenic succession,
allogeneic succession, autotrophic succession and heterotrophic succession.
Plant succession is classified in to hydrosere (Initiating on a water bodies)
,Mesosere and xerosere. Further xerosere is subdivided in to Lithosere (
Initiating on a barren rock), Halosere and Pasmmosere.
Vegetation refers to the plant cover of an area. Geographically,
India and Tamil Nadu show tropical climate. Hence it has rich vegetation
(Forest vegetation, Grassland vegetation, Riparian vegetation, Aquatic and semi
aquatic vegetation). According to Champion and Seth (1968), forest vegetation
of India and Tamil Nadu has been classified in to 16 and 9 types respectively.
Study of interaction between living and non-living components
quality: Total inorganic substances presents in any
ecosystem at a given time and given area
crops: Amount of living material present in a population
at any time.
Can be measured as fresh weight or dry weight of organisms
Bottom zone of the pond
Refers to the position of organisms in food chain
Those eats both plants and animals
chain: Refers movement of energy from producers up to top
Interlocking pattern of food chain
of number: Refers number of organisms in a successive trophic
of biomass: Refers to quantitative relationship of
the standing crops
of energy: Refers transformation of energy at successive
per cent law: refers only 10 per cent of energy is
stored in each successive trophic levels
geo chemical cycle: Exchange of nutrients between organisms
cycle: Circulation of carbon among organisms and
is a accumulated excrement of sea birds and bats.
cycle: Circulation of Phosphorus among organisms and
Successive replacement of one type of plant communities by other on barren or
Invaded plants on barren area
succession: Plants colonising on barren area
succession: Plants colonising on disturbed area.
communities: Final establishment of plant
communities which are not replaced by others.