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The Permanent tissues develop from apical meristem. They lose the power of cell division either permanently or temporarily. They are classified into two types:
1. Simple permanent tissues.
2. Complex permanent tissues.
A complex tissue is a tissue with several types of cells but all of them function together as a single unit. It is of two types – xylem and phloem.
The xylem is the principal water conducting tissue in a vascular plant. The term xylem was introduced by Nageli(1858) and is derived from the Gk. Xylos – wood. The xylem which is derived from Procambium is called primary xylem and the xylem which is derived from vascular cambium is called secondary xylem. Early formed primary xylem elements are called protoxylem, whereas the later formed primary xylem elements are called metaxylem.
Protoxylem lies towards the periphery and metaxylem that lies towards the centre is called Exarch. It is common in roots.
Protoxylem lies towards the centre and meta xylem towards the periphery this condition is called Endarch. It is seen in stems.
Protoxylem is located in the centre surrounded by the metaxylem is called Centrarch. In this type only one vascular strand is developed. Example: Selaginella sp.
Protoxylem is located in the centre surrounded by the metaxylem is called Mesarch.In this type several vascular strands are developed. Example: Ophioglossum sp.
b. Vessels or Trachea
c. Xylem Parenchyma
d. Xylem Fibres
Tracheids are dead, lignified and elongated cells with tapering ends. Its lumen is broader than that of fibres. In cross section, the tracheids are polygonal.
There are different types of cell wall thickenings due to the deposition of secondary wall substances. They are annular (ring like), spiral (spring like), scalariform (ladder like) reticulate (net like) and pitted (uniformly thick except at pits). Tracheids are imperforated cells with bordered pits on their side walls.
Only through this conduction takes place in Gymnosperms. They are arranged one above the other. Tracheids are chief water conducting elements in Gymnosperms and Pteridophytes. They also offer mechanical support to the plants.
Vessels are elongated tube like structure. They are dead cells formed from a row of vessel elements placed end to end. They are perforated at the end walls. Their lumen is wider than Tracheids. Due to the dissolution of entire cell wall, a single pore is formed at the perforation plate. It is called simple perforation plate, Example: Mangifera. If the perforation plate has many pores, it is called multiple perforation plate. Example Liriodendron.
The secondary wall thickening of vessels are annular, spiral, scalariform, reticulate, or pitted as in tracheids, Vessels are chief water conducting elements in Angiosperms and absent in Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. In Gnetum of Gymnosperm, vessels occur. The main function is conduction of water, minerals and also offers mechanical strength.
The fibres of sclerenchyma associated with the xylem are known as xylem fibres. Xylem fibres are dead cells and have lignified walls with narrow lumen. They cannot conduct water but being stronger provide mechanical strength. They are present in both primary and secondary xylem. Xylem fibres are also called libriform fibres.
The fibres are abundantly found in many plants. They occur in patches, in continuous bands and sometimes singly among other cells. Between fibres and normal tracheids, there are many transitional forms which are neither typical fibres nor typical tracheids. The transitional types are designated as fibre-tracheids. The pits of fibre-tracheids are smaller than those of vessels and typical tracheids.
The parenchyma cells associated with the xylem are known as xylem parenchyma. These are the only living cells in xylem tissue. The cell wall is thin and made up of cellulose. Parenchyma arranged longitudinally along the long axis is called axial parenchyma. Ray parenchyma is arranged in radial rows. Secondary xylem consists of both axial and ray parenchyma, Parenchyma stores food materials and also helps in conduction of water.
Phloem is the food conducting complex tissues of vascular plants. The term phloem was coined by C. Nageli (1858) The Phloem which is derived from procambium is called primary phloem and the phloem which is derived from vascular cambium is called secondary phloem. Early formed primary phloem elements are called protophloem whereas the later formed primary phloem elements are called metaphloem. Protophloem is short lived. It gets crushed by the developing metaphloem.
1) Sieve elements
2) Companion cells
3) Phloem parenchyma
4) Phloem fibres
Sieve elements are the conducting elements of the phloem. They are of two types, namely sieve cells and sieve tubes.
These are primitive type of conducting elements found in Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Sieve cells have sieve areas on their lateral walls only. They are not associated with companion cells.
Sieve tubes are long tube like conducting elements in the phloem. These are formed from a series of cells called sieve tube elements. The sieve tube elements are arranged one above the other and form vertical sieve tube. The end wall contains a number of pores and it looks like a sieve. So it is called as sieve plate. The sieve elements show nacreous thickenings on their lateral walls. They may possess simple or compound sieve plates The function of sieve tubes are believed to be controlled by campanion cells.
In mature sieve tube, Nucleus is absent. It contains a lining layer of cytoplasm. A special protein (P. Protein = Phloem Protein) called slime body is seen in it. In mature sieve tubes, the pores in the sieve plate are blocked by a substance called callose (callose plug).The conduction of food material takes place through cytoplasmic strands. Sieve tubes occur only in Angiosperms.
The thin walled, elongated, specialized parenchyma cells, which are associated with the sieve elements, are called companion cells. These cells are living and they have cytoplasm and a prominent nucleus. They are connected to the sieve tubes through pits found in the lateral walls. Through these pits cytoplasmic connections are maintained between these elements. These cells are helpful in maintaining the pressure gradient in the sieve tubes. Usually the nuclei of the companion cells serve for the nuclei of sieve tubes as they lack them. The companion cells are present only in Angiosperms and absent in Gymnosperms and Pteridophytes. They assist the sieve tubes in the conduction of food materials.
The parenchyma cells associated with the phloem are called phloem parenchyma. These are living cells. They store starch and fats. They also contain resins and tannins in some plants. Primary phloem consists of axial parenchyma and secondary phloem consists of both axial and ray parenchyma. They are present in Pteridophytes,Gymnosperms and Dicots.
The fibres of sclerenchyma associated with phloem are called phloem fibres or bast fibres. They are narrow, vertically elongated cells with very thick walls and a small lumen. Among the four phloem elements, phloem fibres are the only dead tissue. These are the strengthening as well as supporting cells.
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