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Biochemistry
-:- How does biochemistry describe life processes?
-:- How did living things originate?
-:- Chemical Foundations of Biochemistry
-:- How and when did the Earth come to be?
-:- How were biomolecules likely to have formed on the early Earth?
-:- Molecules to Cells: Which came first - the catalysts or the hereditary molecules?
-:- The Biggest Biological Distinction-Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
-:- How is prokaryotic DNA organized without a nucleus?
-:- Eukaryotic Cells
-:- Five Kingdoms, Three Domains
-:- Extremophiles: The Toast of the Industry
-:- Common Ground for All Cells
-:- Did eukaryotes develop from prokaryotes?
-:- Did symbiosis play a role in the development of eukaryotes?
-:- Biochemical Energetics
-:- Energy and Change: What kinds of energy changes take place in living cells?
-:- Spontaneity in Biochemical Reactions
-:- Life and Thermodynamics
-:- Predicting Reactions
-:- Water and Polarity
-:- What is polarity?
-:- Solvent Properties of Water
-:- Hydrogen Bonds
-:- Acids, Bases, and pH
-:- Titration Curves
-:- Buffers
-:- How do buffers work?
-:- How do we choose a buffer?
-:- How do we make buffers in the laboratory?
-:- Are naturally occurring pH buffers present in living organisms?
-:- Amino Acids Exist in a Three-Dimensional World
-:- Individual Amino Acids:Their Structures and Properties
-:- Uncommon Amino Acids
-:- Amino Acids to Calm Down and Pep Up
-:- Amino Acids Can Act as Both Acids and Bases
-:- The Peptide Bond
-:- Small Peptides with Physiological Activity
-:- Phenylketonuria-Little Molecules Have Big Effects
-:- Peptide Hormones-More Small Molecules with Big Effects
-:- Amino Acids Go Many Different Places
-:- Protein Structure and Function
-:- Primary Structure of Proteins
-:- Secondary Structure of Proteins
-:- Complete Proteins and Nutrition
-:- Periodic Structures in Protein Backbones
-:- Secondary Structure of Proteins: Irregularities in Regular Structures
-:- Supersecondary Structures and Domains of Proteins
-:- The Collagen Triple Helix
-:- Two Types of Protein Conformations: Fibrous and Globular
-:- Tertiary Structure of Proteins
-:- Forces Involved in Tertiary Structures
-:- Myoglobin: An Example of Protein Structure
-:- Denaturation and Refolding
-:- Quaternary Structure of Proteins
-:- Protein Folding Dynamics
-:- Hydrophobic Interactions:A Case Study in Thermodynamics
-:- Protein Folding Dynamics: The Importance of Correct Folding
-:- Protein-Folding Chaperones
-:- Prions and Disease
-:- Extracting Pure Proteins from Cells
-:- Column Chromatography
-:- What are the different types of chromatography?
-:- Electrophoresis
-:- Determining the Primary Structure of a Protein
-:- Cleavage of the Protein into Peptides
-:- Sequencing of Peptides: The Edman Method
-:- Protein Purification: Pulling It All Together
-:- Enzymes Are Effective Biological Catalysts
-:- Kinetics versus Thermodynamics
-:- Enzymes as Markers for Disease
-:- Enzyme Kinetic Equations
-:- Enzyme-Substrate Binding
-:- Examples of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions
-:- The Michaelis–Menten Approachto Enzyme Kinetics
-:- Enzyme Inhibition
-:- Practical Information from Kinetic Data
-:- Enzyme Inhibition in the Treatment of AIDS
-:- The Behavior of Allosteric Enzymes
-:- The Concerted and Sequential Models for Allosteric Enzymes
-:- Control of Enzyme Activity by Phosphorylation
-:- Zymogens
-:- The Nature of the Active Site
-:- Chemical Reactions Involved in Enzyme Mechanisms
-:- The Active Site and Transition States
-:- Families of Enzymes: Proteases
-:- Coenzymes
-:- Catalytic Antibodies against Cocaine
-:- Catalysts for Green Chemistry
-:- The Definition of a Lipid
-:- The Chemical Natures of the Lipid Types
-:- What are fatty acids?
-:- What are triacylglycerols?
-:- What are phosphoacylglycerols?
-:- What are waxes and sphingolipids?
-:- What are glycolipids?
-:- What are steroids?
-:- Biological Membranes
-:- What is the structure of lipid bilayers?
-:- How does the composition of the bilayer affect its properties?
-:- Butter versus Margarine-Which Is Healthier?
-:- The Kinds of Membrane Proteins
-:- The Fluid-Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure
-:- Membranes in Drug Delivery
-:- The Functions of Biological Membranes
-:- Lipid Droplets Are Not Just Great Balls of Fat
-:- Lipid-Soluble Vitamins and Their Functions
-:- Vision Has Great Chemistry
-:- Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes
-:- Why Should We Eat More Salmon?
-:- Levels of Structure in Nucleic Acids
-:- The Covalent Structure of Polynucleotides
-:- The DNA Family Tree
-:- The Structure of DNA
-:- What is the nature of the DNA double helix?
-:- Are there other possible conformations of the double helix?
-:- How does prokaryotic DNA supercoil into its tertiary structure?
-:- How does supercoiling take place in eukaryotic DNA?
-:- What Makes a Triple Helix Useful in Drug Design?
-:- Denaturation of DNA
-:- The Principal Kinds of RNA and Their Structures
-:- What kinds of RNA play a role in life processes?
-:- What is the role of transfer RNA in protein synthesis?
-:- How does ribosomal RNA combine with proteins to form the site of protein synthesis?
-:- The Human Genome Project: Treasure or Pandora’s Box?
-:- Why Identical Twins Are Not Identical
-:- The Flow of Genetic Information in the Cell
-:- Replication of DNA
-:- DNA Polymerase
-:- Semidiscontinuous DNA Replication
-:- DNA Polymerase from E. coli
-:- Proteins Required for DNA Replication
-:- Proofreading and Repair
-:- Why Does DNA Contain Thymine and Not Uracil?
-:- Eukaryotic DNA Replication
-:- The SOS Response in E. coli
-:- Telomerase and Cancer
-:- Transcription of the Genetic Code
-:- Transcription in Prokaryotes
-:- Transcription Regulation in Prokaryotes
-:- Transcription in Eukaryotes
-:- Transcription Regulation in Eukaryotes
-:- Structural Motifs in DNA-Binding Proteins
-:- Post transcriptional RNA Modification
-:- Lupus: An Autoimmune Disease Involving RNA Processing
-:- Ribozymes
-:- What are the characteristics of a ribozyme?
-:- Proofreading in Transcription? RNA Fills In Another Missing Piece
-:- Translating the Genetic Message
-:- The Genetic Code
-:- Codon–Anticodon Pairing and Wobble
-:- Amino Acid Activation
-:- Prokaryotic Translation
-:- Eukaryotic Translation
-:- Posttranslational Modification of Proteins
-:- Protein Degradation
-:- Chaperones: Preventing Unsuitable Associations
-:- Silent Mutations Are Not Always Silent
-:- How Do We Adapt to High Altitude?
-:- Purification and Detection of Nucleic Acids
-:- Restriction Endonucleases
-:- Cloning
-:- What is cloning?
-:- What are plasmids?
-:- Genetic Engineering
-:- Genetic Engineering in Agriculture
-:- Human Proteins through Genetic Recombination Techniques
-:- Fusion Proteins and Fast Purifications
-:- DNA Libraries
-:- The Polymerase Chain Reaction
-:- DNA Fingerprinting
-:- CSI: Biochemistry - Forensic Uses of DNA Testing
-:- Sequencing DNA
-:- RNA Interference - The Newest Way to Study Genes
-:- Genomics and Proteomics
-:- Viruses
-:- What is the structure of a virus?
-:- Families of Viruses
-:- Virus Life Cycles
-:- Why are viruses important?
-:- Retroviruses
-:- Why are retroviruses important?
-:- Viruses are Used for Gene Therapy
-:- The Immune System
-:- Innate Immunity-The Front Lines of Defense
-:- Acquired Immunity: Cellular Aspects
-:- T-Cell Functions
-:- T-Cell Memory
-:- The Immune System: Molecular Aspects
-:- The Immune System: Distinguishing Self from Nonself
-:- Viral RNAs Outwit the Immune System
-:- Cancer
-:- Oncogenes
-:- Tumor Suppressors
-:- Viruses and Cancer
-:- Viruses Helping Cure Cancer
-:- Attacking the Symptoms instead of the Disease?
-:- Standard States for Free-Energy Changes
-:- A Modified Standard State for Biochemical Applications
-:- Living Things Need Energy-How Do They Use It?
-:- The Nature of Metabolism
-:- Living Things Are Unique Thermodynamic Systems
-:- The Role of Oxidation and Reduction in Metabolism
-:- Coenzymes in Biologically Important Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
-:- Coupling of Production and Use of Energy
-:- Coenzyme A in Activation of Metabolic Pathways
-:- Sugars: Their Structures and Stereochemistry
-:- What is unique about the structures of sugars?
-:- What happens if a sugar forms a cyclic molecule?
-:- Reactions of Monosaccharides
-:- Vitamin C Is Related to Sugars
-:- Some Important Oligosaccharides
-:- Fruits, Flowers, Striking Colors, and Medicinal Uses Too
-:- Lactose Intolerance: Why Do So Many People Not Want to Drink Milk?
-:- Structures and Functions of Polysaccharides
-:- Why Is Dietary Fiber So Good for You?
-:- Glycoproteins
-:- Low-Carbohydrate Diets
-:- Glycoproteins and Blood Transfusions
-:- The Overall Pathway of Glycolysis
-:- Biofuels from Fermentation
-:- Conversion of Six-Carbon Glucose toThree-Carbon Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate
-:- Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Is Converted to Pyruvate
-:- Anaerobic Metabolism of Pyruvate
-:- What Is the Connection between Anaerobic Metabolism and Dental Plaque?
-:- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
-:- Energy Production in Glycolysis
-:- How Glycogen Is Produced and Degraded
-:- How does the breakdown of glycogen take place?
-:- How is glycogen formed from glucose?
-:- How is glycogen metabolism controlled?
-:- Why Do Athletes Go In for Glycogen Loading?
-:- Gluconeogenesis Produces Glucose from Pyruvate
-:- Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism
-:- Glucose Is Sometimes Diverted throughthe Pentose Phosphate Pathway
-:- The Pentose Phosphate Pathway and Hemolytic Anemia
-:- The Central Role of the Citric Acid Cycle in Metabolism
-:- The Overall Pathway of the Citric Acid Cycle
-:- How Pyruvate Is Converted to Acetyl-CoA
-:- The Individual Reactions of the Citric Acid Cycle
-:- Plant Poisons and the Citric Acid Cycle
-:- Energetics and Control of the Citric Acid Cycle
-:- The Glyoxylate Cycle: A Related Pathway
-:- The Citric Acid Cycle in Catabolism
-:- The Citric Acid Cycle in Anabolism
-:- Why Can’t Animals Use All the Same Energy Sources as Plants and Bacteria?
-:- The Link to Oxygen
-:- Why Is It So Hard to Lose Weight?
-:- The Role of Electron Transport in Metabolism
-:- Reduction Potentials in the Electron Transport Chain
-:- Organization of Electron Transport Complexes
-:- The Connection between Electron Transportand Phosphorylation
-:- The Mechanism of Coupling in Oxidative Phosphorylation
-:- Respiratory Inhibitors Can Be Usedto Study Electron Transport
-:- Shuttle Mechanisms
-:- What Does Brown Adipose Tissue Have to Do with Obesity?
-:- The ATP Yield from Complete Oxidation of Glucose
-:- Sports and Metabolism
-:- The Darker Side of Sports
-:- Catabolism of Lipids
-:- The Energy Yield from the Oxidationof Fatty Acids
-:- Catabolism of Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Odd-Carbon Fatty Acids
-:- Ketone Bodies
-:- Fatty-Acid Biosynthesis
-:- Ketone Bodies and Effective Weight Loss
-:- Synthesis of Acylglycerols and Compound Lipids
-:- A Gene for Obesity
-:- Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase-A New Target in the Fight against Obesity?
-:- Cholesterol Biosynthesis
-:- Atherosclerosis
-:- Chloroplasts Are the Site of Photosynthesis
-:- The Relationship between Wavelength and Energy of Light
-:- Photosystems I and II and the Light Reactions of Photosynthesis
-:- Cyclic Electron Transport in Photosystem I
-:- Photosynthesis and ATP Production
-:- Killing Weeds by Inhibiting Photosynthesis
-:- Evolutionary Implications of Photosynthesis with and without Oxygen
-:- Dark Reactions of Photosynthesis Fix CO2
-:- Chloroplast Genes
-:- CO2 Fixation in Tropical Plants
-:- Nitrogen Metabolism: An Overview
-:- Nitrogen Fixation
-:- Why Is the Nitrogen Content of Fertilizers So Important?
-:- Feedback Inhibition in Nitrogen Metabolism
-:- Amino Acid Biosynthesis
-:- Essential Amino Acids
-:- Amino Acid Catabolism
-:- Water and the Disposal of Nitrogen Wastes
-:- Chemotherapy and Antibiotics - Taking Advantage of the Need for Folic Acid
-:- Purine Biosynthesis
-:- Purine Catabolism
-:- Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome
-:- Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and Catabolism
-:- Conversion of Ribonucleotides to Deoxyribonucleotides
-:- Conversion of dUTP to dTTP
-:- Connections between Metabolic Pathways
-:- Biochemistry and Nutrition
-:- What are required nutrients?
-:- Why do we need vitamins?
-:- What are minerals?
-:- The Food Pyramid
-:- What is obesity?
-:- Alcohol Consumption and Addiction
-:- Iron: An Example of a Mineral Requirement
-:- Hormones and Second Messengers
-:- What are hormones?
-:- How do second messengers work? Cyclic AMP and G Proteins
-:- Calcium Ion as a Second Messenger
-:- Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
-:- Hormones and the Control of Metabolism
-:- Insulin and Its Effects
-:- Insulin and Low-Carbohydrate Diets
-:- A Workout a Day Keeps Diabetes Away?
-:- The Search for Longevity
-:- Living Cell
-:- Types of Living cells
-:- Sub cellular Organelles
-:- Cell Membrane and its Functions
-:- Cell Wall and its Functions
-:- Nucleus and its Functions
-:- Mitochondria and its Functions
-:- Endoplasmic reticulum and its Functions
-:- Golgi apparatus and its Functions
-:- Ribosomes and its Functions
-:- Lysosomes and its Functions
-:- Peroxisomes and its Functions
-:- Cytoplasm and its Functions
-:- Chloroplasts and its Functions
-:- Cell Vacuoles
-:- Blood: Composition and Functions
-:- Formation of blood
-:- Body Fluids
-:- Buffers
-:- Uses of buffer
-:- Buffers of blood
-:- Acids and bases
-:- Biomolecule: Carbohydrates
-:- Classification and Functions of Carbohydrates
-:- Proteins: Definition, Classification, Functions
-:- Lipids: Definition, Classification, Functions
-:- Nucleic acids: Definition, Classification, Functions
-:- Enzymes
-:- Chemical nature of enzymes
-:- Naming of enzymes
-:- Classification of enzymes
-:- Factors influencing enzyme activity
-:- Types of enzyme inhibition
-:- Iso enzymes
-:- Importance of enzymes
-:- Functions of carbohydrates
-:- Classification of carbohydrates
-:- Monosaccharides
-:- Physical properties of monosaccharides
-:- Chemical properties of glucose
-:- Haworth projection formula of glucose and fructose
-:- Disaccharides
-:- Poly saccharides
-:- Proteins and Sources of protein
-:- Amino acids
-:- Properties of amino acids
-:- Classification of amino acids
-:- Physical and Chemical Properties of proteins
-:- Protein structure
-:- Biologically important proteins
-:- Lipids
-:- Classification of Fatty acids
-:- Essential fatty acid (EFA): Structure, Functions
-:- Structure of triacyl glycerol
-:- Physical and Chemical Properties of triacyl glycerol
-:- Phospholipids
-:- Classification of Phospholipids
-:- Properties of glycero phospholipids and sphingo phospholipids
-:- Importance of phospholipids
-:- Sterols
-:- Cholesterol: Structure, Properties
-:- Structure and Properties of pyrimidine bases
-:- Purine bases: Structure and Properties
-:- Nucleic acids
-:- Nucleic acids: Nucleosides and Nucleotides
-:- Structure of DNA
-:- Functions of DNA
-:- Structure and types of RNA
-:- Vitamins
-:- Fat soluble vitamins
-:- Water soluble vitamins
-:- Vitamin - A
-:- Vitamin D
-:- Vitamin E
-:- Vitamin K
-:- Thiamine (B1)
-:- Riboflavin (B2)
-:- Niacin (B3)
-:- Pyridoxine (B6)
-:- Folic acid
-:- Vitamin B12
-:- Pantothenic acid (B5)
-:- Biotin
-:- Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
-:- Minerals Introduction
-:- Calcium
-:- Phosphorus
-:- Sodium
-:- Potassium
-:- Chlorine
-:- Magnesium
-:- Sulphur
-:- Iron
-:- Copper
-:- Iodine
-:- Fluorine
-:- Zinc
-:- Cobalt
-:- Manganese
-:- Chromium
-:- Molybdenum
-:- Selenium
-:- Chromatography
-:- Types of chromatography
-:- Column chromatography: Types, Principle
-:- Thin Layer chromatography
-:- Paper chromatography
-:- Applications of chromatography
-:- Electrophoresis: principle, Types
-:- Centrifugation techniques: Principle, Types, Uses
-:- Differential centrifugation technique
-:- Spectrophotometry
-:- The photoelectric colorimeter
-:- Applications of spectrophotometry
-:- Cell Membrane: Introduction
-:- Cell Membrane: Chemical Composition
-:- Models proposed for the plasma membrane
-:- Membrane Transport
-:- Cell Membrane: Viscosity
-:- Surface tension
-:- Osmosis and Biological Significance
-:- Buffers
-:- Biochemistry: Digestion
-:- Carbohydrates in Digestion
-:- Digestion of Proteins
-:- Digestion of Lipids
-:- Digestion of Nucleic acids
-:- Biochemistry: Carbohydrate Metabolism
-:- Carbohydrate as a source of energy
-:- Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
-:- HMP shunt pathway
-:- Glycogen
-:- Glycogen biosynthesis
-:- Degradation of glycogen (Glycogenolysis)
-:- Gluconeogenesis
-:- Diabetes Mellitus
-:- Protein Metabolism
-:- Protein biosynthesis
-:- Protein Metabolism Translation
-:- Metabolism of Proteins
-:- Urea Cycle
-:- Formation of Niacin
-:- Formation of Melanin
-:- Formation of thyroid hormone
-:- Formation of catecholamines
-:- Lipid Metabolism
-:- Biological functions of Lipids
-:- Fatty acids
-:- Biosynthesis of fatty acids
-:- Oxidation of Fatty Acids
-:- Cholesterol Biosynthesis
-:- Biosynthesis of cholesterol
-:- Important products derived from cholesterol
-:- Biosynthesis of phospholipids
-:- Cephalin
-:- Atherosclerosis
-:- Nucleic Acid Metabolism
-:- Biosynthesis of DNA
-:- Replication and Models of Replication
-:- Sequential Process of Replication Initiation of DNA replication
-:- Catabolism of DNA by Deoxyribonucleases
-:- Biosynthesis of RNA (Transcription)
-:- Processing of mRNA molecules
-:- mRNA Processing of tRNA Molecules
-:- Role of tRNA in protein synthesis
-:- Inborn Errors of Metabolism
-:- Galactosemia: Causes, Symptoms
-:- Von - Gierke’s Disease : Cause, Symptoms
-:- Hemophilia: Causes, Symptoms
-:- Albinism
-:- Alkaptonuria: Causes, Symptoms
-:- Taysach’s Disease: Causes, Symptoms
-:- Neoplasm
-:- Biological Oxidation
-:- Redox Couple
-:- Electron transport chain
-:- Oxidative phosphorylation
-:- High energy compounds
-:- Enzyme Kinetics
-:- Derivation of M - M Equation
-:- Enzyme Action
-:- Enzyme Inhibitor - Concepts
-:- Immunology
-:- Infections
-:- Immunity
-:- Natural Immunity
-:- Acquired immunity
-:- Humoral immunity
-:- Cell mediated immunity
-:- Antigens
-:- Structure and Types of Antigens
-:- Factors influencing the antigenicity of antigens
-:- Antibodies
-:- Antibody Structure
-:- Immunoglobulin and their functions, Types
-:- Antigen antibody reactions
-:- Blood groups
-:- Collection of Blood
-:- Preparation of Starch From Potatoes
-:- Preparation of Casein From Milk
-:- Estimation of Protein (Biuret Method) - Colorimetric Estimation
-:- Estimation of Glucose (Orthotoluidine method)
-:- Estimation of Calcium (Titrimetric Method)
-:- Determination of Blood Grouping