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Plant cells have cell wall made up of cellulose and the cytoplasm consists of big vacuoles and chloroplasts (Fig.1.11).
The ability to use light as a source of energy for sugar synthesis from water and carbon dioxide is a special feature of certain plant cells. This process, termed photosynthesis is carried out in organelles called chloroplasts. These organelles are commonly ellipsoidal structures bounded by an outer membrane but also containing a number of internal membranes. Internally, the chloroplast consists of a series of membranes arranged in parallel sheets called lamellae and supported in a homogeneous matrix called the stroma. The membranes are arranged as thin sacs called thylakoids that contain chlorophyll and may be stacked on top of one another, forming structures called grana. Lamellar membranes connecting the grana are called stroma lamellae (Fig.1.12).
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