Microbiology and Immunology

Important questions and answers, Online Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki

Microbiology and Immunology

Microbiology and Immunology



General Microbiology History of Microbiology


History of Microbiology
Historical Background of Microbiology
Microorganisms as a Cause of Disease
Study of Viruses
Phenomenon of Immunity
Specificity of the Antibody Molecule
Chemotherapeutic Agents

Morphology and Physiology of Bacteria


Morphology and Physiology of Bacteria
Size of Bacteria
Microscopy and Types of Microscopy
Light microscopy
Fluorescence microscopy
Electron microscopy
Study of Bacteria
Staining Methods used in diagnostic microbiology
Shape of Bacteria
Cell Wall - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope
Cell Membrane - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope
Cytoplasm - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope
Nucleus - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope
Capsule and Slime Layer - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope
Surface Appendages - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope
Sporulation - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope
Growth and Multiplication of Bacteria
Bacterial Count
Bacterial Growth Curve
Factors Affecting Growth of Bacteria
Bacterial Nutrition

Sterilizationand Disinfection


Definition of Frequently Used Terms in Sterilizationand Disinfection
Sterilization
Physical Methods of Sterilization
Chemical Methods of Sterilization
Sterilization by moist heat
Sterilization by dry heat
Disinfection
Properties of Ideal Disinfectant
Action of Disinfectants
Factors Influencing Activity of Disinfectants
Types of Disinfectants
Testing of Disinfectants

Culture Media


Culture Media
Ingredients of Culture Media
Types of Culture Media

Culture Methods


Culture Methods
Methods of Culture
Anaerobic Culture: Specimen, Culture Media, Methods

Laboratory Identification of Bacteria and Taxonomy


Identification of Bacteria
Biochemical Reactions - Identification of Bacteria
Typing of Bacterial Strains
Bacterial Taxonomy
Bacterial Classification
Nomenclature of Microorganisms

Bacterial Genetics


Bacterial Genetics
Chromosomal Substances - Bacterial Genetics
Mutations
Extrachromosomal DNA Substances
Transfer of DNA Within Bacterial Cells
Transfer of DNA Between Bacterial Cells

Genetic Engineering and Molecular Methods


DNA: An Amazing Molecule
Genetic Engineering
Nucleic Acid Probes
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Recombinant DNA Technology - Microbiology and Immunology
Genetically Modified Organisms
Gene Therapy

Antimicrobial Agents Therapy and Resistance


Antimicrobial Agents Therapy and Resistance
Mechanisms of Action of Antimicrobial Drugs
Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance - Resistance to Antimicrobial Drugs
Nongenetic and Genetic Basis of Resistance
Specific Mechanisms of Resistance
Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing
Antibacterial Assays in Body Fluids

Microbial Pathogenesis


Microbial Pathogenesis: Introduction
Types of Microorganisms
Infection and Types of Infections
Stages of Pathogenesis of Infections
Transmission of Infection - Stages of Pathogenesis of Infections
Entry of Organisms and Evasion of Local Defenses - Stages of Pathogenesis of Infections
Adherence to Cell Surfaces - Stages of Pathogenesis of Infections
Growth and Multiplication of Bacteria at the Site of Adherence - Stages of Pathogenesis of Infections
Manifestations and Termination of Disease - Stages of Pathogenesis of Infections
Stages of an Infectious Disease

Immunity


Immunity
Types of Immunity
Innate Immunity
Factors influencing innate immunity
Mechanisms of innate immunity
Mediators of inflammatory reactions
Adaptive (Acquired) Immunity and its Types

Antigen


Antigen: Introduction
Determinants of Antigenicity
Antigenic Specificity: Epitopes
Species Specificity - Antigen
Isospecificity - Antigen
Autospecificity - Antigen
Organ Specificity - Antigen
Heterophile Specificity - Antigen
Haptens
Superantigens

Antibodies


Antibodies: Introduction
Structure of Immunoglobulins
Treatment of Immunoglobulins with Proteolytic Enzymes
Immunoglobulin Antigen Determinants
Biosynthesis of Immunoglobulins
Metabolism of Immunoglobulins
Immunoglobulin Classes
Abnormal Immunoglobulins

Antigen Antibody Reactions


General Features of Antigen-Antibody Reactions
Stages of Antigen-Antibody Reactions
Types of Antigen-Antibody Reactions
Precipitation - Antigen Antibody Reactions
Types of precipitation reactions - Antigen Antibody Reactions
Agglutination - Antigen Antibody Reactions
Types of agglutination reactions: Direct, Passive - Antigen Antibody Reactions
Complement Dependent Serological Tests - Antigen Antibody Reactions
Neutralization Tests - Antigen Antibody Reactions
Opsonization - Antigen Antibody Reactions
Immunofluorescence - Antigen Antibody Reactions
Enzyme Immunoassays - Antigen Antibody Reactions
Radioimmunoassay - Antigen Antibody Reactions
Western Blotting - Antigen Antibody Reactions
Chemiluminescence Assay - Antigen Antibody Reactions
Immunoelectronmicroscopic Tests - Antigen Antibody Reactions

Complement System


Complement System
Activation of Complement
Regulation of Complement System
Biological Effects of Complement
Deficiency of Complement
Biosynthesis of Complement
Quantitation of Complement

Structure and Function Imune System


Structure and Function Imune System: Introduction
Lymphoid Tissues and Organs
Lymphatic Circulatory System
Cells of the Lymphoreticular System
Thymus-derived cells
Bone marrow-derived cells
Antigen-presenting cells
Effector cells that function to eliminate antigens
Major Histocompatibility Complex

Immune Response


Humoral Immunity
Production of Antibodies
Theories of antibody formation
Factors affecting production of antibodies
Immunosuppressive agents
Monoclonal Antibodies and Method of production
Function of Antibodies
Cell-Mediated Immunity
Induction of CMI
Cytokines and Categories of cytokines
Tests for Detection of CMI
Transfer Factor
Immunological Tolerance
Mechanisms of Tolerance
Types of Immune Tolerance

Immunodeficiency


Immunodeficiency: Introduction
Primary Immunodeficiencies
B-Cell Immunodeficiencies
T-Cell Immunodeficiencies
Combined B-Cell and T-Cell Deficiencies
Complement Immunodeficiencies
Phagocyte Deficiencies
Secondary Immunodeficiencies
B-Cell Deficiencies
T-Cell Deficiencies
Complement Deficiencies

Hypersensitivity


Hypersensitivity: Introduction
Type I (Anaphylactic) Hypersensitivity
Type II (Cytotoxic) Hypersensitivity
Type III (Immune-Complex) Hypersensitivity
Type IV Delayed (Cell-Mediated) Hypersensitivity
Type V (Stimulatory Type) Hypersensitivity
Types of DTH(delayed type hyper-sensitivity) Reactions
Mechanism of DTH(delayed type hyper-sensitivity)
Immune-Complex Diseases

Autoimmunity


Autoimmunity
Tolerance and Mechanisms of Tolerance
Pathogenesis of Autoimmunity
Mechanisms in Pathogenesis of Autoimmunity
Autoimmune Pathological Process
Animal Models of Autoimmunity
Autoimmune Diseases

Immunology of Transplantation and Malignancy


Transplant Immunology and Types of Transplants
Allograft Rejection - Transplant Immunology
Graft-Versus-Host Reaction - Transplant Immunology
Tumor Immunology
Features of Malignant Cells
Tumor Antigens
Immune Reactions against Tumors
Immunosurveillance
Immunotherapy of Cancer

Immunohematology


ABO Blood Group System and Antigens
Rh Blood Group System and Antigens
Blood Transfusion
Hemolytic Disease of Newborn (Erythroblastosis Fetalis)
ABO Hemolytic Diseases

Bacteriology Staphylococcus


Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus aureus
Properties of the Bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Staphylococcus aureus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Staphylococcus aureus
Clinical Syndromes of Staphylococcus aureus
Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus
Laboratory diagnosis of staphylococcal infections - Staphylococcus aureus
Treatment of staphylococcal infection - Staphylococcus aureus
Prevention and Control of staphylococcal infection - Staphylococcus aureus
Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci
Micrococcus, Planococcus, Stomatococcus - Staphylococcus

Bacteriology Streptococcus and Enterococcus


Streptococcus
Streptococcus pyogenes
Properties of the Bacteria - Streptococcus pyogenes
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Streptococcus pyogenes
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Streptococcus pyogenes
Clinical Syndromes - Streptococcus pyogenes
Epidemiology - Streptococcus pyogenes
Laboratory Diagnosis - Streptococcus pyogenes
Treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections
Prevention and Control of Streptococcus pyogenes infections
Streptococcus agalactiae
Other Hemolytic Streptococci
Viridans Streptococci
Enterococcus

Bacteriology Pneumococusm


Streptococcus pneumonia
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Streptococcus pneumonia
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Streptococcus pneumonia
Clinical Syndromes - Streptococcus pneumonia
Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumonia
Laboratory Diagnosis - Streptococcus pneumonia infections
Treatment of Streptococcus pneumonia infections

Bacteriology Neisseria


Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Properties of the Bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Properties - Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Clinical Syndromes - Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Laboratory diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection
Treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection
Prevention and Control of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection
Neisseria meningitides: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Neisseria meningitides
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Neisseria meningitides
Clinical Syndromes - Neisseria meningitides
Epidemiology of Neisseria meningitides
Laboratory Diagnosis of Neisseria meningitides infections
Treatment of Neisseria meningitides infections
Prevention and Control of Neisseria meningitides infections
Other Neisseria Bacteria Species

Bacteriology Corynebacterium


Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium diphtheria: Properties of the Bacteria
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Corynebacterium diphtheria
Clinical Syndromes - Corynebacterium diphtheria
Epidemiology of Corynebacterium diphtheria
Laboratory Diagnosis of Corynebacterium diphtheria infections
Treatment of Corynebacterium diphtheria infections
Prevention and Control of Corynebacterium diphtheria infections
Other Pathogenic Corynebacterium Species
Few Coryneform Genera

Bacteriology Bacillus


Bacillus: Introduction
Bacillus anthracis
Properties of the Bacteria Bacillus anthracis
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Properties - Bacillus anthracis
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Bacillus anthracis
Clinical Syndromes - Bacillus anthracis
Epidemiology - Bacillus anthracis
Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacillus anthracis infections
Treatment of Bacillus anthracis infections
Prevention and Control of Bacillus anthracis infections
Anthracoid Bacilli
Bacillus cereus

Bacteriology Clostridium


Clostridium
General Properties of Clostridia
Clostridium perfringens: Properties of the Bacteria
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Clostridium perfringens
Clinical Syndromes - Clostridium perfringens
Epidemiology - Clostridium perfringens
Laboratory Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control of Clostridium perfringens infections
Clostridium tetani: Properties of the Bacteria
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Clostridium tetani
Clinical Syndromes - Clostridium tetani
Epidemiology - Clostridium tetani
Laboratory Diagnosis of Clostridium tetani infections
Treatment of Clostridium tetani infections
Prevention and Control of Clostridium tetani infections
Clostridium botulinum: Properties of the Bacteria
Pathogenicity and Immunity - Clostridium botulinum
Clinical Syndromes - Clostridium botulinum
Epidemiology - Clostridium botulinum
Laboratory Diagnosis of Clostridium botulinum infections
Treatment of Clostridium botulinum infections
Prevention and Control of Clostridium botulinum infections
Clostridium difficile

Bacteriology Nonsporing Anaerobes


Nonsporing Anaerobes
Anaerobic Bacilli
Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli
Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli

Coliforms


Coliforms
Escherichia
Escherichia coli: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Escherichia coli
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Escherichia coli
Epidemiology - Escherichia coli
Laboratory Diagnosis of Escherichia coli Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control of Escherichia coli Infections
Edwardsiella
Citrobacter - Nonsporing Anaerobes
Klebsiella
Enterobacter
Hafnia
Serratia
Proteus
Proteus: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Properties - Proteus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Proteus
Clinical Syndromes - Proteus
Epidemiology - Proteus
Laboratory Diagnosis of Proteus Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control of Proteus Infections
Morganella
Providencia
Erwinia

Bacteriology Salmonella


Salmonella
Salmonella: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Salmonella
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Salmonella
Clinical Syndromes - Salmonella
Epidemiology - Salmonella
Laboratory Diagnosis of Salmonella Infections
Treatment of Salmonella Infections
Prevention and Control of Salmonella Infections
Salmonella Gastroenteritis
Salmonella Bacteremia

Bacteriology Shigella


Shigella
Shigella: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Shigella
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Shigella
Clinical Syndromes - Shigella
Epidemiology - Shigella
Laboratory Diagnosis of Shigella Infections
Treatment and Prevention and Control of Shigella Infections

Bacteriology Yersinia


Yersinia
Yersinia pestis: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Yersinia pestis
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Yersinia pestis
Clinical Syndromes - Yersinia pestis
Epidemiology - Yersinia pestis
Laboratory Diagnosis of Yersinia pestis Infections
Treatment of Yersinia pestis Infections
Prevention and Control of Yersinia pestis Infections
Yersinia enterocolitica
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Bacteriology VibrioAeromonasand Plesiomonas


Vibrio cholerae: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Vibrio cholerae
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Vibrio cholerae
Clinical Syndromes - Vibrio cholerae
Epidemiology - Vibrio cholerae
Laboratory Diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae Infections
Treatment of Vibrio cholerae Infections
Prevention and Control of Vibrio cholerae Infections
Noncholera Vibrios
Vibrio mimicus
Halophilic Vibrios
Aeromonas
Plesiomonas

Bacteriology Campylobacter and Helicobacter


Campylobacter: Properties of the Bacteria
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Campylobacter
Clinical Syndrome - Campylobacter
Epidemiology - Campylobacter
Laboratory Diagnosis of Campylobacter Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control of Campylobacter Infections
Helicobacter
Helicobacter pylori: Properties of the Bacteria
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Helicobacter pylori
Clinical Syndrome - Helicobacter pylori
Epidemiology - Helicobacter pylori
Laboratory Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control of Helicobacter pylori Infections

Bacteriology Pseudomonas Burkholderia and Moraxell


Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Clinical Syndromes - Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Epidemiology - Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Laboratory Diagnosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections
Burkholderia: Burkholderia cepacia, mallei, pseudomallei
Moraxella

Bacteriology Haemophilus Pasteurella and Actinobacillus


Haemophilu
Haemophilus influenza: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Structures and Antigenic Properties - Haemophilus influenza
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Haemophilus influenza
Clinical Syndromes - Haemophilus influenza
Epidemiology - Haemophilus influenza
Laboratory Diagnosis of Haemophilus influenza Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control of Haemophilus influenza Infections
Few Haemophilus Species
Pasteurella
Actinobacillus
HACEK Group of Bacteria

Bacteriology Bordetella and Francisella


Bordetella
Bordetella pertussis: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Properties - Bordetella pertussis
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Bordetella pertussis
Clinical Syndromes - Bordetella pertussis
Epidemiology - Bordetella pertussis
Laboratory Diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control of Bordetella pertussis Infections
Bordetella parapertussis
Bordetella bronchiseptica
Francisella tularensis: Properties of the bacteria
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Francisella tularensis
Clinical Syndromes and Epidemiology - Francisella tularensis
Laboratory Diagnosis of Francisella tularensis Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control of Francisella tularensis Infections

Bacteriology Brucella


Brucella
Brucella: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Brucella
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Brucella
Clinical Syndromes - Brucella
Epidemiology - Brucella
Laboratory Diagnosis of Brucella Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control of Brucella Infections

Bacteriology Mycobacterium tuberculosis


Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis: General Properties
Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Clinical Syndromes - Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Complications of Tuberculosis - Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Epidemiology - Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Laboratory Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections
Treatment for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections
Prevention and Control for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections

Bacteriology Nontuberculous Mycobacteria


Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
Photochromogens
Scotochromogens
Nonphotochromogens
Rapid Growers

Bacteriology Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium


Mycobacterium leprae: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Mycobacterium leprae
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Mycobacterium leprae
Clinical Syndromes - Mycobacterium leprae
Epidemiology - Mycobacterium leprae
Laboratory Diagnosis for Mycobacterium leprae Infections
Treatment for Mycobacterium leprae Infections
Prevention and Control for Mycobacterium leprae Infections
Mycobacterium lepraemurium

Bacteriology Treponema Borrelia and Leptospira


Treponema
Treponema pallidum: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Treponema pallidum
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Treponema pallidum
Clinical Syndromes - Treponema pallidum
Epidemiology - Treponema pallidum
Laboratory Diagnosis - Treponema pallidum Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Treponema pallidum Infections
Nonvenereal Treponematosis
Nonpathogenic Treponemes
Borrelia
Borrelia recurrentis: Properties of the Bacteria
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Borrelia recurrentis
Clinical Syndromes - Borrelia recurrentis
Epidemiology - Borrelia recurrentis
Laboratory Diagnosis - Borrelia recurrentis infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Borrelia recurrentis infections
Borrelia vincenti
Borrelia burgdorferi
Leptospira: Classification
Leptospira interrogans Complex: Properties of the Bacteria
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Leptospira interrogans Complex
Clinical Syndromes - Leptospira interrogans Complex
Epidemiology - Leptospira interrogans Complex
Laboratory Diagnosis - Leptospira interrogans Complex Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Leptospira interrogans Complex Infections

Bacteriology Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma


Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma
Mycoplasma pneumonia: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Mycoplasma pneumonia
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Mycoplasma pneumonia
Clinical Syndromes - Mycoplasma pneumonia
Epidemiology - Mycoplasma pneumonia
Laboratory Diagnosis - Mycoplasma pneumonia Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Mycoplasma pneumonia Infections
Genital Mycoplasma Species
Ureaplasma urealyticum
Atypical Pneumonia

Bacteriology Actinomycetes


Actinomycetes
Actinomyces: Properties of the Bacteria
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Actinomyces
Clinical Syndromes and Epidemiology - Actinomyces
Laboratory Diagnosis - Actinomyces Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Actinomyces Infections
Nocardia
Nocardia: Properties of the Bacteria
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Nocardia
Clinical Syndromes - Nocardia
Epidemiology - Nocardia
Laboratory Diagnosis - Nocardia Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Nocardia Infections
Rhodococcus
Gordonia, Tsukamurella, Thermophilic Actinomyces, Tropheryma whippelii, Dermatophilus, Oerskovia - Actinomycetes

Bacteriology Miscellaneous Bacteria


Listeria monocytogenes - Bacteria
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae - Bacteria
Alcaligenes faecalis - Bacteria
Chromobacterium violaceum - Bacteria
Flavobacterium meningosepticum - Bacteria
Calymmatobacterium - Bacteria
Streptobacillus moniliformis - Bacteria
Spirillum minus - Bacteria
Legionella - Bacteria
Legionella pneumophila: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Legionella pneumophila
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Legionella pneumophila
Clinical Sydromes - Legionella pneumophila
Epidemiology - Legionella pneumophila
Laboratory Diagnosis - Legionella pneumophila Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Legionella pneumophila Infections
Bartonella
Capnocytophaga
Gardnerella vaginalis - Bacteria

Bacteriology Rickettsia Orientia Ehrlichia and Coxiella


Rickettsia, Orientia Ehrlichia, and Coxiella
Genus Rickettsia: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Genus Rickettsia
Typhus Fever Group
Rickettsia prowazekii
Rickettsia typhi
Spotted Fever Group
Rickettsia rickettsiae
Rickettsia akari
Orientia tsutsugamushi - Genus Orientia
Genus Ehrlichia
Genus Coxiella
Coxiella burnetii: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Coxiella burnetii
Pathogenesis and Immunity, Clinical Syndrome - Coxiella burnetii
Epidemiology - Coxiella burnetii
Laboratory Diagnosis - Coxiella burnetii Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Coxiella burnetii Infections

Bacteriology Chlamydia and Chlamydophilaum


Chlamydia
Chlamydia: General Properties, Growth and Multiplication
Chlamydia trachomatis: Properties of the Bacteria
Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Chlamydia trachomatis
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Chlamydia trachomatis
Clinical Syndromes - Chlamydia trachomatis
Epidemiology - Chlamydia trachomatis
Laboratory Diagnosis - Chlamydia trachomatis Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Chlamydia trachomatis Infections
Chlamydophila
Chlamydophila pneumonia
Chlamydophila psittaci

Virology Virus General Properties of Viruses


General Properties of Viruses
Morphology of Viruses
Structure and Symmetry of Virus
Susceptibility to Physical and Chemical Agents of Virus
Replication of Viruses
Viral Genetics
Nomenclature and Taxonomy of Viruses

Virology Virus Pathogenesis of Viral Infections


Stages of Viral Infections
Viral Pathogenesis at the Cellular Level
Host Response to Viral Infections
Clinical Manifestations of Viral Diseases
Epidemiology - Pathogenesis of Viral Infections

Virology Virus Antiviral Agents


Antiviral Agents
Mechanism of Action of Antiviral Drugs
Classification of Antiviral Drugs

Virology Virus Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases


Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases: Introduction
Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
Demonstration of Virus-Induced CPEs in the Cells - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
Direct Detection of Viruses - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
Virus Isolation - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
Viral Assays - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
Detection of Viral Proteins and Other Enzymes - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
Detection of Viral Genome - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
Viral Serology - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases

Virology Virus Bacteriophages


Bacteriophages
Morphology - Bacteriophages
Life Cycle: Lysogenic and Lytic Cycle - Bacteriophages
Uses of Bacteriophages
Bacteriophage Typing

Virology Virus Poxviruses


Poxviruses: Classification
Variola (Smallpox) Virus: Properties of the Virus
Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Variola (Smallpox) Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Variola (Smallpox) Virus
Clinical Syndrome - Variola (Smallpox) Virus
Epidemiology - Variola (Smallpox) Virus
Laboratory Diagnosis - Variola (Smallpox) Virus Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Variola (Smallpox) Virus Infections
Vaccinia Virus
Monkeypox
Buffalopox
Cowpox
Orf
Molluscum Contagiosum
Tanapox and Yabapox

Virology Virus Papovaviruses


Human Papillomaviruses: Properties of the Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Human Papillomaviruses
Clinical Syndromes - Human Papillomaviruses
Epidemiology - Human Papillomaviruses
Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Human Papillomaviruses Infections
Polyomavirus

Virology Virus Herpesviruses


Herpesviruses
Herpes Simplex Virus: Properties of the Virus
Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Herpes Simplex Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Herpes Simplex Virus
Clinical Syndromes - Herpes Simplex Virus
Epidemiology - Herpes Simplex Virus
Laboratory Diagnosis - Herpes Simplex Virus Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Herpes Simplex Virus Infections
Herpesvirus Simiae: B Virus
Varicella Zoster Virus: Properties of the Virus, Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Varicella Zoster Virus
Clinical Syndromes - Varicella Zoster Virus
Epidemiology - Varicella Zoster Virus
Laboratory Diagnosis - Varicella Zoster Virus Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Varicella Zoster Virus Infections
Epstein Barr Virus: Properties of the Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Epstein Barr Virus
Clinical Syndromes - Epstein Barr Virus
Epidemiology - Epstein Barr Virus
Laboratory Diagnosis - Epstein Barr Virus Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Epstein Barr Virus Infections
Cytomegalovirus: Classification, Properties of the Virus, Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Cytomegalovirus
Clinical Syndromes - Cytomegalovirus
Epidemiology - Cytomegalovirus
Laboratory Diagnosis - Cytomegalovirus Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Cytomegalovirus Infections
Human Herpesvirus 6,7,8

Virology Virus Adenoviruses


Adenovirus: Classification
Adenovirus: Properties of the Virus
Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Adenovirus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Adenovirus
Clinical Syndromes - Adenovirus
Epidemiology - Adenovirus
Laboratory Diagnosis - Adenovirus Infections
Treatment - Adenovirus Infections
Adeno-Associated Viruses

Virology Virus Parvoviruses


Parvoviruses
Parvovirus B19: Properties of the Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Parvovirus B19
Clinical Syndromes - Parvovirus B19
Epidemiology - Parvovirus B19
Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Parvovirus B19 Infections

Virology Virus Picornaviruses


Picornaviruses
Enteroviruses
Poliovirus: Properties of the Virus
Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Poliovirus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Poliovirus
Clinical Syndromes - Poliovirus
Epidemiology - Poliovirus
Laboratory Diagnosis - Poliovirus Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Poliovirus Infections
Coxsackieviruses
Diseases Caused by Coxsackie A and B
Echoviruses
Enterovirus 70
Rhinoviruses

Virology Virus Orthomyxoviruses


Orthomyxoviruses
Influenza Viruses: Properties of the Virus
Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Influenza Viruses
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Influenza Viruses
Clinical Syndrome - Influenza Viruses
Complications - Influenza Viruses
Epidemiology - Influenza Viruses
Laboratory Diagnosis - Influenza Viruses Infections
Treatment - Influenza Viruses Infections
Prevention and Control - Influenza Viruses Infections

Virology Virus Paramyxoviruses


Paramyxoviruses
Measles Virus: General Properties
Virus Isolation - Measles Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Measles Virus
Clinical Syndromes - Measles Virus
Epidemiology - Measles Virus
Laboratory Diagnosis - Measles Virus Infections
Prevention and Control - Measles Virus Infections
Parainfluenza Virus: Properties of the Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Parainfluenza Virus
Clinical Syndromes and Epidemiology - Parainfluenza Virus
Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Parainfluenza Virus Infections
Mumps Virus: Properties of the Virus, Virus Isolation
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Mumps Virus
Clinical Syndrome and Epidemiology - Mumps Virus
Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Mumps Virus Infections
Respiratory Syncytial: Properties of the Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Respiratory Syncytial
Clinical Syndromes - Respiratory Syncytial
Epidemiology - Respiratory Syncytial
Laboratory Diagnosis - Respiratory Syncytial Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Respiratory Syncytial Infections
Nipah Virus and Hendra Virus
Human Metapneumovirus

Virology Virus Reoviruses


Human Metapneumovirus
Reoviruses
Orbiviruses
Coltiviruses and Colorado Tick Fever Virus
Orthoreoviruses
Rotavirus: Properties of the Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Rotavirus
Clinical Syndrome and Epidemiology - Rotavirus
Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Rotavirus Infections

Virology Virus Rhabdoviruses


Rhabdoviruses
Rabies Virus: Properties of the Virus
Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Rabies Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Rabies Virus
Clinical Syndrome - Rabies Virus
Epidemiology - Rabies Virus
Laboratory Diagnosis in Humans - Rabies Virus Infection
Direct Antigen Detection - Rabies Virus Infection
Laboratory Diagnosis in Animals - Rabies Virus Infection
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Rabies Virus Infection
Rabies-Related Viruses

Virology Virus Arboviruses


Arboviruses
Important Properties of Arboviruses
Roboviruses
Togaviruses: Alphaviruses, Rubivirus
Flaviviruses
Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses
Properties of the virus Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses
Pathogenesis and immunity - Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses
Clinical syndromes - Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses
Epidemiology - Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses
Laboratory diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and control - Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses Infections
Tick-Borne Flaviviruses
Bunyaviridae Viruses
Reoviridae
Rhabdoviridae
Ungrouped Arboviruses

Hepatitis Viruses


Hepatitis Viruses: Introduction
Hepatitis A Virus: Properties of the Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Hepatitis A Virus
Clinical Syndrome - Hepatitis A Virus
Epidemiology - Hepatitis A Virus
Laboratory Diagnosis - Hepatitis A Virus
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Hepatitis A Virus Infections
Hepatitis B Virus: Properties of the Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Hepatitis B Virus
Clinical Syndromes - Hepatitis B Virus
Epidemiology - Hepatitis B Virus
Laboratory Diagnosis - Hepatitis B Virus Infections
Treatment - Hepatitis B Virus Infections
Prevention and Control - Hepatitis B Virus Infections
Hepatitis C Virus: Properties of the Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Hepatitis C Virus
Clinical Syndromes - Hepatitis C Virus
Epidemiology - Hepatitis C Virus
Laboratory Diagnosis - Hepatitis C Virus Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Hepatitis C Virus Infections
Hepatitis D Virus
Hepatitis E Virus
Hepatitis G Virus

Virology Virus Retrovirus


Retroviruses: Classification
Retroviruses: Properties of the Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Retroviruses
Clinical Syndromes - Retroviruses
Epidemiology - Retroviruses
Laboratory Diagnosis and Treatment - Retroviruses Infections
Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses: Properties of the Virus
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses
Host immunity - Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses
Clinical Syndromes - Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses
Epidemiology - Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses
Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses Infections
Endogenous Retroviruses

Virology Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus


Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV Virus: Classification and Properties of the Virus
HIV Virus Isolation: Cell culture
Pathogenesis and Immunity - HIV Virus
Clinical Syndromes - HIV Virus
Epidemiology - HIV Virus
Laboratory Diagnosis - HIV Virus infection
Treatment - HIV Virus infection
Prevention and Control - HIV Virus infection

Virology Virus Slow Viruses and Prions


Slow Viruses and Prions
Slow Diseases Caused by Prions
Properties of the Prions - Slow Diseases Caused by Prions
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Slow Diseases Caused by Prions
Clinical Syndromes - Slow Diseases Caused by Prions
Epidemiology - Slow Diseases Caused by Prions
Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Slow Diseases Caused by Prions
Slow Diseases Caused by Conventional Viruses in Humans
Slow Diseases Caused by Conventional Viruses in Animals

Virology Virus Miscellaneous Viruses


Rubella Virus
Norwalk Virus
Viral Hemorrhagic Fever
Arenavirus
Coronaviruses

Mycology Fungi Introduction to Mycology


Introduction to Mycology
Classification of Fungi
Reproduction of Fungi
Pathogenesis of Fungal Infection
Laboratory Diagnosis of Fungal Infection
Antifungal Drugs

Mycology Fungi Superficial Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Mycoses


Superficial Mycoses
Cutaneous Mycoses
Subcutaneous Mycosis

Mycology Fungi Systemic Mycoses


Coccidioidomycosis
Paracoccidioidomycosis
Histoplasmosis
Blastomycosis
Cryptococcosis

Mycology Fungi Opportunistic Fungal Infections


Opportunistic Fungal Infections
Candidiasis
Candida albicans: Properties
Pathogenesis and Immunity - Candida albicans
Clinical Syndromes and Epidemiology - Candida albicans
Laboratory Diagnosis - Candida albicans Infections
Treatment, Prevention and Control - Candida albicans Infections
Aspergillus Species
Zygomycosis
Pneumocystis jiroveci - Pneumocystosis
Penicillium marneffei - Penicilliosis
Pseudoallescheria boydii Infection
Fusarium solani Infection

Applied Microbiology Normal Microbial Flora


Normal Microbial Flora
Functions of Resident Flora
Factors Determining the Colonization by Microbes
Normal Flora at Various Sites of the Body
Normal Flora at Respiratory Tract
Normal Flora at Gastrointestinal Tract
Normal Flora at Genitourinary Tract
Normal Flora at Body Surface
Normal Flora at Sterile Sites

Applied Microbiology Bacteriology of Water Milk and Air


Bacteriology of Water
Bacteriology of Milk
Bacteriology of Air

Applied Microbiology Nosocomial Infections


Nosocomial Infections
Factors Affecting Hospital-Acquired Infection
Epidemiology of Hospital-Acquired Infections
Diagnosis of Hospital-Acquired Infections
Prevention and Control of Hospital-Acquired Infections

Applied Microbiology Biomedical Waste Management


Biomedical Waste Management
Types of Biomedical Waste
Waste Treatment and Disposal of Biomedical Wastes

Applied Microbiology Immunoprophylaxis


Immunoprophylaxis
Active Immunization
Immunization Schedule
Passive Immunization
Individual Immunization



Privacy Policy, Terms and Conditions, DMCA Policy and Compliant, Contact

Copyright © 2018-2023 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. Developed by Therithal info, Chennai.