Microbiology and Immunology

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Microbiology and Immunology

General Microbiology History of Microbiology


=> History of Microbiology
=> Historical Background of Microbiology
=> Microorganisms as a Cause of Disease
=> Study of Viruses
=> Phenomenon of Immunity
=> Specificity of the Antibody Molecule
=> Chemotherapeutic Agents

Morphology and Physiology of Bacteria


=> Morphology and Physiology of Bacteria
=> Size of Bacteria
=> Microscopy and Types of Microscopy
=> Light microscopy
=> Fluorescence microscopy
=> Electron microscopy
=> Study of Bacteria
=> Staining Methods used in diagnostic microbiology
=> Shape of Bacteria
=> Cell Wall - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope
=> Cell Membrane - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope
=> Cytoplasm - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope
=> Nucleus - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope
=> Capsule and Slime Layer - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope
=> Surface Appendages - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope
=> Sporulation - Structure and Functions of Bacterial Cell Envelope
=> Growth and Multiplication of Bacteria
=> Bacterial Count
=> Bacterial Growth Curve
=> Factors Affecting Growth of Bacteria
=> Bacterial Nutrition

Sterilizationand Disinfection


=> Definition of Frequently Used Terms in Sterilizationand Disinfection
=> Sterilization
=> Physical Methods of Sterilization
=> Chemical Methods of Sterilization
=> Sterilization by moist heat
=> Sterilization by dry heat
=> Disinfection
=> Properties of Ideal Disinfectant
=> Action of Disinfectants
=> Factors Influencing Activity of Disinfectants
=> Types of Disinfectants
=> Testing of Disinfectants

Culture Media


=> Culture Media
=> Ingredients of Culture Media
=> Types of Culture Media

Culture Methods


=> Culture Methods
=> Methods of Culture
=> Anaerobic Culture: Specimen, Culture Media, Methods

Laboratory Identification of Bacteria and Taxonomy


=> Identification of Bacteria
=> Biochemical Reactions - Identification of Bacteria
=> Typing of Bacterial Strains
=> Bacterial Taxonomy
=> Bacterial Classification
=> Nomenclature of Microorganisms

Bacterial Genetics


=> Bacterial Genetics
=> Chromosomal Substances - Bacterial Genetics
=> Mutations
=> Extrachromosomal DNA Substances
=> Transfer of DNA Within Bacterial Cells
=> Transfer of DNA Between Bacterial Cells

Genetic Engineering and Molecular Methods


=> DNA: An Amazing Molecule
=> Genetic Engineering
=> Nucleic Acid Probes
=> Polymerase Chain Reaction
=> Recombinant DNA Technology - Microbiology and Immunology
=> Genetically Modified Organisms
=> Gene Therapy

Antimicrobial Agents Therapy and Resistance


=> Antimicrobial Agents Therapy and Resistance
=> Mechanisms of Action of Antimicrobial Drugs
=> Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance - Resistance to Antimicrobial Drugs
=> Nongenetic and Genetic Basis of Resistance
=> Specific Mechanisms of Resistance
=> Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing
=> Antibacterial Assays in Body Fluids

Microbial Pathogenesis


=> Microbial Pathogenesis: Introduction
=> Types of Microorganisms
=> Infection and Types of Infections
=> Stages of Pathogenesis of Infections
=> Transmission of Infection - Stages of Pathogenesis of Infections
=> Entry of Organisms and Evasion of Local Defenses - Stages of Pathogenesis of Infections
=> Adherence to Cell Surfaces - Stages of Pathogenesis of Infections
=> Growth and Multiplication of Bacteria at the Site of Adherence - Stages of Pathogenesis of Infections
=> Manifestations and Termination of Disease - Stages of Pathogenesis of Infections
=> Stages of an Infectious Disease

Immunity


=> Immunity
=> Types of Immunity
=> Innate Immunity
=> Factors influencing innate immunity
=> Mechanisms of innate immunity
=> Mediators of inflammatory reactions
=> Adaptive (Acquired) Immunity and its Types

Antigen


=> Antigen: Introduction
=> Determinants of Antigenicity
=> Antigenic Specificity: Epitopes
=> Species Specificity - Antigen
=> Isospecificity - Antigen
=> Autospecificity - Antigen
=> Organ Specificity - Antigen
=> Heterophile Specificity - Antigen
=> Haptens
=> Superantigens

Antibodies


=> Antibodies: Introduction
=> Structure of Immunoglobulins
=> Treatment of Immunoglobulins with Proteolytic Enzymes
=> Immunoglobulin Antigen Determinants
=> Biosynthesis of Immunoglobulins
=> Metabolism of Immunoglobulins
=> Immunoglobulin Classes
=> Abnormal Immunoglobulins

Antigen Antibody Reactions


=> General Features of Antigen-Antibody Reactions
=> Stages of Antigen-Antibody Reactions
=> Types of Antigen-Antibody Reactions
=> Precipitation - Antigen Antibody Reactions
=> Types of precipitation reactions - Antigen Antibody Reactions
=> Agglutination - Antigen Antibody Reactions
=> Types of agglutination reactions: Direct, Passive - Antigen Antibody Reactions
=> Complement Dependent Serological Tests - Antigen Antibody Reactions
=> Neutralization Tests - Antigen Antibody Reactions
=> Opsonization - Antigen Antibody Reactions
=> Immunofluorescence - Antigen Antibody Reactions
=> Enzyme Immunoassays - Antigen Antibody Reactions
=> Radioimmunoassay - Antigen Antibody Reactions
=> Western Blotting - Antigen Antibody Reactions
=> Chemiluminescence Assay - Antigen Antibody Reactions
=> Immunoelectronmicroscopic Tests - Antigen Antibody Reactions

Complement System


=> Complement System
=> Activation of Complement
=> Regulation of Complement System
=> Biological Effects of Complement
=> Deficiency of Complement
=> Biosynthesis of Complement
=> Quantitation of Complement

Structure and Function Imune System


=> Structure and Function Imune System: Introduction
=> Lymphoid Tissues and Organs
=> Lymphatic Circulatory System
=> Cells of the Lymphoreticular System
=> Thymus-derived cells
=> Bone marrow-derived cells
=> Antigen-presenting cells
=> Effector cells that function to eliminate antigens
=> Major Histocompatibility Complex

Immune Response


=> Humoral Immunity
=> Production of Antibodies
=> Theories of antibody formation
=> Factors affecting production of antibodies
=> Immunosuppressive agents
=> Monoclonal Antibodies and Method of production
=> Function of Antibodies
=> Cell-Mediated Immunity
=> Induction of CMI
=> Cytokines and Categories of cytokines
=> Tests for Detection of CMI
=> Transfer Factor
=> Immunological Tolerance
=> Mechanisms of Tolerance
=> Types of Immune Tolerance

Immunodeficiency


=> Immunodeficiency: Introduction
=> Primary Immunodeficiencies
=> B-Cell Immunodeficiencies
=> T-Cell Immunodeficiencies
=> Combined B-Cell and T-Cell Deficiencies
=> Complement Immunodeficiencies
=> Phagocyte Deficiencies
=> Secondary Immunodeficiencies
=> B-Cell Deficiencies
=> T-Cell Deficiencies
=> Complement Deficiencies

Hypersensitivity


=> Hypersensitivity: Introduction
=> Type I (Anaphylactic) Hypersensitivity
=> Type II (Cytotoxic) Hypersensitivity
=> Type III (Immune-Complex) Hypersensitivity
=> Type IV Delayed (Cell-Mediated) Hypersensitivity
=> Type V (Stimulatory Type) Hypersensitivity
=> Types of DTH(delayed type hyper-sensitivity) Reactions
=> Mechanism of DTH(delayed type hyper-sensitivity)
=> Immune-Complex Diseases

Autoimmunity


=> Autoimmunity
=> Tolerance and Mechanisms of Tolerance
=> Pathogenesis of Autoimmunity
=> Mechanisms in Pathogenesis of Autoimmunity
=> Autoimmune Pathological Process
=> Animal Models of Autoimmunity
=> Autoimmune Diseases

Immunology of Transplantation and Malignancy


=> Transplant Immunology and Types of Transplants
=> Allograft Rejection - Transplant Immunology
=> Graft-Versus-Host Reaction - Transplant Immunology
=> Tumor Immunology
=> Features of Malignant Cells
=> Tumor Antigens
=> Immune Reactions against Tumors
=> Immunosurveillance
=> Immunotherapy of Cancer

Immunohematology


=> ABO Blood Group System and Antigens
=> Rh Blood Group System and Antigens
=> Blood Transfusion
=> Hemolytic Disease of Newborn (Erythroblastosis Fetalis)
=> ABO Hemolytic Diseases

Bacteriology Staphylococcus


=> Staphylococcus
=> Staphylococcus aureus
=> Properties of the Bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Staphylococcus aureus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Staphylococcus aureus
=> Clinical Syndromes of Staphylococcus aureus
=> Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus
=> Laboratory diagnosis of staphylococcal infections - Staphylococcus aureus
=> Treatment of staphylococcal infection - Staphylococcus aureus
=> Prevention and Control of staphylococcal infection - Staphylococcus aureus
=> Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci
=> Micrococcus, Planococcus, Stomatococcus - Staphylococcus

Bacteriology Streptococcus and Enterococcus


=> Streptococcus
=> Streptococcus pyogenes
=> Properties of the Bacteria - Streptococcus pyogenes
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Streptococcus pyogenes
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Streptococcus pyogenes
=> Clinical Syndromes - Streptococcus pyogenes
=> Epidemiology - Streptococcus pyogenes
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Streptococcus pyogenes
=> Treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections
=> Prevention and Control of Streptococcus pyogenes infections
=> Streptococcus agalactiae
=> Other Hemolytic Streptococci
=> Viridans Streptococci
=> Enterococcus

Bacteriology Pneumococusm


=> Streptococcus pneumonia
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Streptococcus pneumonia
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Streptococcus pneumonia
=> Clinical Syndromes - Streptococcus pneumonia
=> Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumonia
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Streptococcus pneumonia infections
=> Treatment of Streptococcus pneumonia infections

Bacteriology Neisseria


=> Neisseria gonorrhoeae
=> Properties of the Bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Properties - Neisseria gonorrhoeae
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Neisseria gonorrhoeae
=> Clinical Syndromes - Neisseria gonorrhoeae
=> Epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae
=> Laboratory diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection
=> Treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection
=> Prevention and Control of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection
=> Neisseria meningitides: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Neisseria meningitides
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Neisseria meningitides
=> Clinical Syndromes - Neisseria meningitides
=> Epidemiology of Neisseria meningitides
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Neisseria meningitides infections
=> Treatment of Neisseria meningitides infections
=> Prevention and Control of Neisseria meningitides infections
=> Other Neisseria Bacteria Species

Bacteriology Corynebacterium


=> Corynebacterium
=> Corynebacterium diphtheria: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Corynebacterium diphtheria
=> Clinical Syndromes - Corynebacterium diphtheria
=> Epidemiology of Corynebacterium diphtheria
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Corynebacterium diphtheria infections
=> Treatment of Corynebacterium diphtheria infections
=> Prevention and Control of Corynebacterium diphtheria infections
=> Other Pathogenic Corynebacterium Species
=> Few Coryneform Genera

Bacteriology Bacillus


=> Bacillus: Introduction
=> Bacillus anthracis
=> Properties of the Bacteria Bacillus anthracis
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Properties - Bacillus anthracis
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Bacillus anthracis
=> Clinical Syndromes - Bacillus anthracis
=> Epidemiology - Bacillus anthracis
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacillus anthracis infections
=> Treatment of Bacillus anthracis infections
=> Prevention and Control of Bacillus anthracis infections
=> Anthracoid Bacilli
=> Bacillus cereus

Bacteriology Clostridium


=> Clostridium
=> General Properties of Clostridia
=> Clostridium perfringens: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Clostridium perfringens
=> Clinical Syndromes - Clostridium perfringens
=> Epidemiology - Clostridium perfringens
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control of Clostridium perfringens infections
=> Clostridium tetani: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Clostridium tetani
=> Clinical Syndromes - Clostridium tetani
=> Epidemiology - Clostridium tetani
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Clostridium tetani infections
=> Treatment of Clostridium tetani infections
=> Prevention and Control of Clostridium tetani infections
=> Clostridium botulinum: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Pathogenicity and Immunity - Clostridium botulinum
=> Clinical Syndromes - Clostridium botulinum
=> Epidemiology - Clostridium botulinum
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Clostridium botulinum infections
=> Treatment of Clostridium botulinum infections
=> Prevention and Control of Clostridium botulinum infections
=> Clostridium difficile

Bacteriology Nonsporing Anaerobes


=> Nonsporing Anaerobes
=> Anaerobic Bacilli
=> Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli
=> Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli

Coliforms


=> Coliforms
=> Escherichia
=> Escherichia coli: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Escherichia coli
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Escherichia coli
=> Epidemiology - Escherichia coli
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Escherichia coli Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control of Escherichia coli Infections
=> Edwardsiella
=> Citrobacter - Nonsporing Anaerobes
=> Klebsiella
=> Enterobacter
=> Hafnia
=> Serratia
=> Proteus
=> Proteus: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Properties - Proteus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Proteus
=> Clinical Syndromes - Proteus
=> Epidemiology - Proteus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Proteus Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control of Proteus Infections
=> Morganella
=> Providencia
=> Erwinia

Bacteriology Salmonella


=> Salmonella
=> Salmonella: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Salmonella
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Salmonella
=> Clinical Syndromes - Salmonella
=> Epidemiology - Salmonella
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Salmonella Infections
=> Treatment of Salmonella Infections
=> Prevention and Control of Salmonella Infections
=> Salmonella Gastroenteritis
=> Salmonella Bacteremia

Bacteriology Shigella


=> Shigella
=> Shigella: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Shigella
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Shigella
=> Clinical Syndromes - Shigella
=> Epidemiology - Shigella
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Shigella Infections
=> Treatment and Prevention and Control of Shigella Infections

Bacteriology Yersinia


=> Yersinia
=> Yersinia pestis: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Yersinia pestis
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Yersinia pestis
=> Clinical Syndromes - Yersinia pestis
=> Epidemiology - Yersinia pestis
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Yersinia pestis Infections
=> Treatment of Yersinia pestis Infections
=> Prevention and Control of Yersinia pestis Infections
=> Yersinia enterocolitica
=> Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Bacteriology VibrioAeromonasand Plesiomonas


=> Vibrio cholerae: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Vibrio cholerae
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Vibrio cholerae
=> Clinical Syndromes - Vibrio cholerae
=> Epidemiology - Vibrio cholerae
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae Infections
=> Treatment of Vibrio cholerae Infections
=> Prevention and Control of Vibrio cholerae Infections
=> Noncholera Vibrios
=> Vibrio mimicus
=> Halophilic Vibrios
=> Aeromonas
=> Plesiomonas

Bacteriology Campylobacter and Helicobacter


=> Campylobacter: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Campylobacter
=> Clinical Syndrome - Campylobacter
=> Epidemiology - Campylobacter
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Campylobacter Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control of Campylobacter Infections
=> Helicobacter
=> Helicobacter pylori: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Helicobacter pylori
=> Clinical Syndrome - Helicobacter pylori
=> Epidemiology - Helicobacter pylori
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control of Helicobacter pylori Infections

Bacteriology Pseudomonas Burkholderia and Moraxell


=> Pseudomonas
=> Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Pseudomonas aeruginosa
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Pseudomonas aeruginosa
=> Clinical Syndromes - Pseudomonas aeruginosa
=> Epidemiology - Pseudomonas aeruginosa
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections
=> Burkholderia: Burkholderia cepacia, mallei, pseudomallei
=> Moraxella

Bacteriology Haemophilus Pasteurella and Actinobacillus


=> Haemophilu
=> Haemophilus influenza: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Structures and Antigenic Properties - Haemophilus influenza
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Haemophilus influenza
=> Clinical Syndromes - Haemophilus influenza
=> Epidemiology - Haemophilus influenza
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Haemophilus influenza Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control of Haemophilus influenza Infections
=> Few Haemophilus Species
=> Pasteurella
=> Actinobacillus
=> HACEK Group of Bacteria

Bacteriology Bordetella and Francisella


=> Bordetella
=> Bordetella pertussis: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Properties - Bordetella pertussis
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Bordetella pertussis
=> Clinical Syndromes - Bordetella pertussis
=> Epidemiology - Bordetella pertussis
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control of Bordetella pertussis Infections
=> Bordetella parapertussis
=> Bordetella bronchiseptica
=> Francisella tularensis: Properties of the bacteria
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Francisella tularensis
=> Clinical Syndromes and Epidemiology - Francisella tularensis
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Francisella tularensis Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control of Francisella tularensis Infections

Bacteriology Brucella


=> Brucella
=> Brucella: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Brucella
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Brucella
=> Clinical Syndromes - Brucella
=> Epidemiology - Brucella
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Brucella Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control of Brucella Infections

Bacteriology Mycobacterium tuberculosis


=> Mycobacterium tuberculosis
=> Mycobacterium tuberculosis: General Properties
=> Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Mycobacterium tuberculosis
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Mycobacterium tuberculosis
=> Clinical Syndromes - Mycobacterium tuberculosis
=> Complications of Tuberculosis - Mycobacterium tuberculosis
=> Epidemiology - Mycobacterium tuberculosis
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections
=> Treatment for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections
=> Prevention and Control for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections

Bacteriology Nontuberculous Mycobacteria


=> Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
=> Photochromogens
=> Scotochromogens
=> Nonphotochromogens
=> Rapid Growers

Bacteriology Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium


=> Mycobacterium leprae: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Mycobacterium leprae
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Mycobacterium leprae
=> Clinical Syndromes - Mycobacterium leprae
=> Epidemiology - Mycobacterium leprae
=> Laboratory Diagnosis for Mycobacterium leprae Infections
=> Treatment for Mycobacterium leprae Infections
=> Prevention and Control for Mycobacterium leprae Infections
=> Mycobacterium lepraemurium

Bacteriology Treponema Borrelia and Leptospira


=> Treponema
=> Treponema pallidum: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Treponema pallidum
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Treponema pallidum
=> Clinical Syndromes - Treponema pallidum
=> Epidemiology - Treponema pallidum
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Treponema pallidum Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Treponema pallidum Infections
=> Nonvenereal Treponematosis
=> Nonpathogenic Treponemes
=> Borrelia
=> Borrelia recurrentis: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Borrelia recurrentis
=> Clinical Syndromes - Borrelia recurrentis
=> Epidemiology - Borrelia recurrentis
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Borrelia recurrentis infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Borrelia recurrentis infections
=> Borrelia vincenti
=> Borrelia burgdorferi
=> Leptospira: Classification
=> Leptospira interrogans Complex: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Leptospira interrogans Complex
=> Clinical Syndromes - Leptospira interrogans Complex
=> Epidemiology - Leptospira interrogans Complex
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Leptospira interrogans Complex Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Leptospira interrogans Complex Infections

Bacteriology Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma


=> Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma
=> Mycoplasma pneumonia: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Mycoplasma pneumonia
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Mycoplasma pneumonia
=> Clinical Syndromes - Mycoplasma pneumonia
=> Epidemiology - Mycoplasma pneumonia
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Mycoplasma pneumonia Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Mycoplasma pneumonia Infections
=> Genital Mycoplasma Species
=> Ureaplasma urealyticum
=> Atypical Pneumonia

Bacteriology Actinomycetes


=> Actinomycetes
=> Actinomyces: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Actinomyces
=> Clinical Syndromes and Epidemiology - Actinomyces
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Actinomyces Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Actinomyces Infections
=> Nocardia
=> Nocardia: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Nocardia
=> Clinical Syndromes - Nocardia
=> Epidemiology - Nocardia
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Nocardia Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Nocardia Infections
=> Rhodococcus
=> Gordonia, Tsukamurella, Thermophilic Actinomyces, Tropheryma whippelii, Dermatophilus, Oerskovia - Actinomycetes

Bacteriology Miscellaneous Bacteria


=> Listeria monocytogenes - Bacteria
=> Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae - Bacteria
=> Alcaligenes faecalis - Bacteria
=> Chromobacterium violaceum - Bacteria
=> Flavobacterium meningosepticum - Bacteria
=> Calymmatobacterium - Bacteria
=> Streptobacillus moniliformis - Bacteria
=> Spirillum minus - Bacteria
=> Legionella - Bacteria
=> Legionella pneumophila: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Legionella pneumophila
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Legionella pneumophila
=> Clinical Sydromes - Legionella pneumophila
=> Epidemiology - Legionella pneumophila
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Legionella pneumophila Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Legionella pneumophila Infections
=> Bartonella
=> Capnocytophaga
=> Gardnerella vaginalis - Bacteria

Bacteriology Rickettsia Orientia Ehrlichia and Coxiella


=> Rickettsia, Orientia Ehrlichia, and Coxiella
=> Genus Rickettsia: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Genus Rickettsia
=> Typhus Fever Group
=> Rickettsia prowazekii
=> Rickettsia typhi
=> Spotted Fever Group
=> Rickettsia rickettsiae
=> Rickettsia akari
=> Orientia tsutsugamushi - Genus Orientia
=> Genus Ehrlichia
=> Genus Coxiella
=> Coxiella burnetii: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Coxiella burnetii
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity, Clinical Syndrome - Coxiella burnetii
=> Epidemiology - Coxiella burnetii
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Coxiella burnetii Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Coxiella burnetii Infections

Bacteriology Chlamydia and Chlamydophilaum


=> Chlamydia
=> Chlamydia: General Properties, Growth and Multiplication
=> Chlamydia trachomatis: Properties of the Bacteria
=> Cell Wall Components and Antigenic Structure - Chlamydia trachomatis
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Chlamydia trachomatis
=> Clinical Syndromes - Chlamydia trachomatis
=> Epidemiology - Chlamydia trachomatis
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Chlamydia trachomatis Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Chlamydia trachomatis Infections
=> Chlamydophila
=> Chlamydophila pneumonia
=> Chlamydophila psittaci

Virology Virus General Properties of Viruses


=> General Properties of Viruses
=> Morphology of Viruses
=> Structure and Symmetry of Virus
=> Susceptibility to Physical and Chemical Agents of Virus
=> Replication of Viruses
=> Viral Genetics
=> Nomenclature and Taxonomy of Viruses

Virology Virus Pathogenesis of Viral Infections


=> Stages of Viral Infections
=> Viral Pathogenesis at the Cellular Level
=> Host Response to Viral Infections
=> Clinical Manifestations of Viral Diseases
=> Epidemiology - Pathogenesis of Viral Infections

Virology Virus Antiviral Agents


=> Antiviral Agents
=> Mechanism of Action of Antiviral Drugs
=> Classification of Antiviral Drugs

Virology Virus Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases


=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases: Introduction
=> Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
=> Demonstration of Virus-Induced CPEs in the Cells - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
=> Direct Detection of Viruses - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
=> Virus Isolation - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
=> Viral Assays - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
=> Detection of Viral Proteins and Other Enzymes - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
=> Detection of Viral Genome - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
=> Viral Serology - Methods of Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases

Virology Virus Bacteriophages


=> Bacteriophages
=> Morphology - Bacteriophages
=> Life Cycle: Lysogenic and Lytic Cycle - Bacteriophages
=> Uses of Bacteriophages
=> Bacteriophage Typing

Virology Virus Poxviruses


=> Poxviruses: Classification
=> Variola (Smallpox) Virus: Properties of the Virus
=> Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Variola (Smallpox) Virus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Variola (Smallpox) Virus
=> Clinical Syndrome - Variola (Smallpox) Virus
=> Epidemiology - Variola (Smallpox) Virus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Variola (Smallpox) Virus Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Variola (Smallpox) Virus Infections
=> Vaccinia Virus
=> Monkeypox
=> Buffalopox
=> Cowpox
=> Orf
=> Molluscum Contagiosum
=> Tanapox and Yabapox

Virology Virus Papovaviruses


=> Human Papillomaviruses: Properties of the Virus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Human Papillomaviruses
=> Clinical Syndromes - Human Papillomaviruses
=> Epidemiology - Human Papillomaviruses
=> Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Human Papillomaviruses Infections
=> Polyomavirus

Virology Virus Herpesviruses


=> Herpesviruses
=> Herpes Simplex Virus: Properties of the Virus
=> Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Herpes Simplex Virus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Herpes Simplex Virus
=> Clinical Syndromes - Herpes Simplex Virus
=> Epidemiology - Herpes Simplex Virus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Herpes Simplex Virus Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Herpes Simplex Virus Infections
=> Herpesvirus Simiae: B Virus
=> Varicella Zoster Virus: Properties of the Virus, Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Varicella Zoster Virus
=> Clinical Syndromes - Varicella Zoster Virus
=> Epidemiology - Varicella Zoster Virus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Varicella Zoster Virus Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Varicella Zoster Virus Infections
=> Epstein Barr Virus: Properties of the Virus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Epstein Barr Virus
=> Clinical Syndromes - Epstein Barr Virus
=> Epidemiology - Epstein Barr Virus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Epstein Barr Virus Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Epstein Barr Virus Infections
=> Cytomegalovirus: Classification, Properties of the Virus, Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Cytomegalovirus
=> Clinical Syndromes - Cytomegalovirus
=> Epidemiology - Cytomegalovirus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Cytomegalovirus Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Cytomegalovirus Infections
=> Human Herpesvirus 6,7,8

Virology Virus Adenoviruses


=> Adenovirus: Classification
=> Adenovirus: Properties of the Virus
=> Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Adenovirus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Adenovirus
=> Clinical Syndromes - Adenovirus
=> Epidemiology - Adenovirus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Adenovirus Infections
=> Treatment - Adenovirus Infections
=> Adeno-Associated Viruses

Virology Virus Parvoviruses


=> Parvoviruses
=> Parvovirus B19: Properties of the Virus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Parvovirus B19
=> Clinical Syndromes - Parvovirus B19
=> Epidemiology - Parvovirus B19
=> Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Parvovirus B19 Infections

Virology Virus Picornaviruses


=> Picornaviruses
=> Enteroviruses
=> Poliovirus: Properties of the Virus
=> Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Poliovirus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Poliovirus
=> Clinical Syndromes - Poliovirus
=> Epidemiology - Poliovirus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Poliovirus Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Poliovirus Infections
=> Coxsackieviruses
=> Diseases Caused by Coxsackie A and B
=> Echoviruses
=> Enterovirus 70
=> Rhinoviruses

Virology Virus Orthomyxoviruses


=> Orthomyxoviruses
=> Influenza Viruses: Properties of the Virus
=> Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Influenza Viruses
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Influenza Viruses
=> Clinical Syndrome - Influenza Viruses
=> Complications - Influenza Viruses
=> Epidemiology - Influenza Viruses
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Influenza Viruses Infections
=> Treatment - Influenza Viruses Infections
=> Prevention and Control - Influenza Viruses Infections

Virology Virus Paramyxoviruses


=> Paramyxoviruses
=> Measles Virus: General Properties
=> Virus Isolation - Measles Virus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Measles Virus
=> Clinical Syndromes - Measles Virus
=> Epidemiology - Measles Virus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Measles Virus Infections
=> Prevention and Control - Measles Virus Infections
=> Parainfluenza Virus: Properties of the Virus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Parainfluenza Virus
=> Clinical Syndromes and Epidemiology - Parainfluenza Virus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Parainfluenza Virus Infections
=> Mumps Virus: Properties of the Virus, Virus Isolation
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Mumps Virus
=> Clinical Syndrome and Epidemiology - Mumps Virus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Mumps Virus Infections
=> Respiratory Syncytial: Properties of the Virus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Respiratory Syncytial
=> Clinical Syndromes - Respiratory Syncytial
=> Epidemiology - Respiratory Syncytial
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Respiratory Syncytial Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Respiratory Syncytial Infections
=> Nipah Virus and Hendra Virus
=> Human Metapneumovirus

Virology Virus Reoviruses


=> Human Metapneumovirus
=> Reoviruses
=> Orbiviruses
=> Coltiviruses and Colorado Tick Fever Virus
=> Orthoreoviruses
=> Rotavirus: Properties of the Virus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Rotavirus
=> Clinical Syndrome and Epidemiology - Rotavirus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Rotavirus Infections

Virology Virus Rhabdoviruses


=> Rhabdoviruses
=> Rabies Virus: Properties of the Virus
=> Virus Isolation and Animal Susceptibility - Rabies Virus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Rabies Virus
=> Clinical Syndrome - Rabies Virus
=> Epidemiology - Rabies Virus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis in Humans - Rabies Virus Infection
=> Direct Antigen Detection - Rabies Virus Infection
=> Laboratory Diagnosis in Animals - Rabies Virus Infection
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Rabies Virus Infection
=> Rabies-Related Viruses

Virology Virus Arboviruses


=> Arboviruses
=> Important Properties of Arboviruses
=> Roboviruses
=> Togaviruses: Alphaviruses, Rubivirus
=> Flaviviruses
=> Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses
=> Properties of the virus Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses
=> Pathogenesis and immunity - Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses
=> Clinical syndromes - Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses
=> Epidemiology - Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses
=> Laboratory diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and control - Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses Infections
=> Tick-Borne Flaviviruses
=> Bunyaviridae Viruses
=> Reoviridae
=> Rhabdoviridae
=> Ungrouped Arboviruses

Hepatitis Viruses


=> Hepatitis Viruses: Introduction
=> Hepatitis A Virus: Properties of the Virus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Hepatitis A Virus
=> Clinical Syndrome - Hepatitis A Virus
=> Epidemiology - Hepatitis A Virus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Hepatitis A Virus
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Hepatitis A Virus Infections
=> Hepatitis B Virus: Properties of the Virus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Hepatitis B Virus
=> Clinical Syndromes - Hepatitis B Virus
=> Epidemiology - Hepatitis B Virus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Hepatitis B Virus Infections
=> Treatment - Hepatitis B Virus Infections
=> Prevention and Control - Hepatitis B Virus Infections
=> Hepatitis C Virus: Properties of the Virus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Hepatitis C Virus
=> Clinical Syndromes - Hepatitis C Virus
=> Epidemiology - Hepatitis C Virus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Hepatitis C Virus Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Hepatitis C Virus Infections
=> Hepatitis D Virus
=> Hepatitis E Virus
=> Hepatitis G Virus

Virology Virus Retrovirus


=> Retroviruses: Classification
=> Retroviruses: Properties of the Virus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Retroviruses
=> Clinical Syndromes - Retroviruses
=> Epidemiology - Retroviruses
=> Laboratory Diagnosis and Treatment - Retroviruses Infections
=> Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses: Properties of the Virus
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses
=> Host immunity - Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses
=> Clinical Syndromes - Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses
=> Epidemiology - Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses
=> Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses Infections
=> Endogenous Retroviruses

Virology Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus


=> Human Immunodeficiency Virus
=> HIV Virus: Classification and Properties of the Virus
=> HIV Virus Isolation: Cell culture
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - HIV Virus
=> Clinical Syndromes - HIV Virus
=> Epidemiology - HIV Virus
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - HIV Virus infection
=> Treatment - HIV Virus infection
=> Prevention and Control - HIV Virus infection

Virology Virus Slow Viruses and Prions


=> Slow Viruses and Prions
=> Slow Diseases Caused by Prions
=> Properties of the Prions - Slow Diseases Caused by Prions
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Slow Diseases Caused by Prions
=> Clinical Syndromes - Slow Diseases Caused by Prions
=> Epidemiology - Slow Diseases Caused by Prions
=> Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control - Slow Diseases Caused by Prions
=> Slow Diseases Caused by Conventional Viruses in Humans
=> Slow Diseases Caused by Conventional Viruses in Animals

Virology Virus Miscellaneous Viruses


=> Rubella Virus
=> Norwalk Virus
=> Viral Hemorrhagic Fever
=> Arenavirus
=> Coronaviruses

Mycology Fungi Introduction to Mycology


=> Introduction to Mycology
=> Classification of Fungi
=> Reproduction of Fungi
=> Pathogenesis of Fungal Infection
=> Laboratory Diagnosis of Fungal Infection
=> Antifungal Drugs

Mycology Fungi Superficial Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Mycoses


=> Superficial Mycoses
=> Cutaneous Mycoses
=> Subcutaneous Mycosis

Mycology Fungi Systemic Mycoses


=> Coccidioidomycosis
=> Paracoccidioidomycosis
=> Histoplasmosis
=> Blastomycosis
=> Cryptococcosis

Mycology Fungi Opportunistic Fungal Infections


=> Opportunistic Fungal Infections
=> Candidiasis
=> Candida albicans: Properties
=> Pathogenesis and Immunity - Candida albicans
=> Clinical Syndromes and Epidemiology - Candida albicans
=> Laboratory Diagnosis - Candida albicans Infections
=> Treatment, Prevention and Control - Candida albicans Infections
=> Aspergillus Species
=> Zygomycosis
=> Pneumocystis jiroveci - Pneumocystosis
=> Penicillium marneffei - Penicilliosis
=> Pseudoallescheria boydii Infection
=> Fusarium solani Infection

Applied Microbiology Normal Microbial Flora


=> Normal Microbial Flora
=> Functions of Resident Flora
=> Factors Determining the Colonization by Microbes
=> Normal Flora at Various Sites of the Body
=> Normal Flora at Respiratory Tract
=> Normal Flora at Gastrointestinal Tract
=> Normal Flora at Genitourinary Tract
=> Normal Flora at Body Surface
=> Normal Flora at Sterile Sites

Applied Microbiology Bacteriology of Water Milk and Air


=> Bacteriology of Water
=> Bacteriology of Milk
=> Bacteriology of Air

Applied Microbiology Nosocomial Infections


=> Nosocomial Infections
=> Factors Affecting Hospital-Acquired Infection
=> Epidemiology of Hospital-Acquired Infections
=> Diagnosis of Hospital-Acquired Infections
=> Prevention and Control of Hospital-Acquired Infections

Applied Microbiology Biomedical Waste Management


=> Biomedical Waste Management
=> Types of Biomedical Waste
=> Waste Treatment and Disposal of Biomedical Wastes

Applied Microbiology Immunoprophylaxis


=> Immunoprophylaxis
=> Active Immunization
=> Immunization Schedule
=> Passive Immunization
=> Individual Immunization



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