Antimicrobial therapy is the mainstay of treatment of leptospirosis. Oral doxycycline is the drug of choice for treatment of uncomplicated Leptospira infection, not requiring hospitalization. Intravenous penicillin or ampicillin is recommended for hospitalized patients. Streptomycin, tetracycline, or erythromycin is indicated for patients allergic to penicillin.
Prevention and Control
Preventive measures include detection of cases and detection of common source of infection. Disinfection of water supplies, rodent control, and wearing of protective clothings control transmission of the disease. Leptospire infection in livestock is controlled by improved sanitation, immunization of animals, and proper veterinary care.
Recently, human vaccines are available against leptospiro-sis. These vaccines are recommended only for high-risk work-ers. These vaccines are serovar specific and usually given every year.