Brucellae are sensitive to a number of oral antibiotics and ami-noglycosides. The combination of tetracycline and doxycyclineis effective against most species of Brucella. Relapse is common on therapy with a single drug. So, the combination of antibiotics is recommended whenever possible. Combination of doxycy-cline with rifampin is effective. Doxycycline given in a dos-age of 200 mg/day orally with the addition of streptomycin in a dosage of 1 g/day given intramuscularly for 2–3 weeks is most effective for treatment of most forms of brucellosis in adults.
Most of the patients respond to a 6-week course of therapy with a combination of rifampin and doxycycline given orally. Only less than 10% of patients show relapse. A dosage of doxy-cycline for 6 weeks with combination of streptomycin for the first 3 weeks is also effective. Relapse in brucellosis is due to inadequate therapy and not due to development of resistance to antibiotics.
Prevention and Control
Pasteurization or boiling of milk is most important to prevent transmission of brucellosis in humans, as most of the human infections are acquired by ingestion of contaminated milk and milk products. Also, use of protective clothing and gloves by per-sons handling or coming into close contact with animals prevents transmission of infection. For vaccination refer the box Vaccines.