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Azithromycin is the drug of choice for treatment of genital chlamydial infections. This antibiotic has the advantage of being given in a single dose regimen and has high tolerability and few contraindications. Tetracyclines are usually recommended for treatment of patients with LGV for at least 3 weeks. Children below 9 years, pregnant women, and patients unable to tolerate tetracyclines are treated with a macrolide, such as erythromycin or azithromycin in combination with sulfisoxazole.
Doxycycline for 7 days or fluoroquinolone (e.g., ofloxacin) for 7 days is also effective for treatment of genital and ocular infections. Erythromycin given for 10–14 days is very useful for treatment of conjunctivitis in infants and infant pneumonia. Erythromycin may be administered orally and topically for treatment of ophthalmia neonatorum.
Local application and oral administration of erythromycin and tetracycline given for several weeks are effective for treat-ment of trachoma.
Prevention and Control
Although it is difficult to prevent C. trachomatis infection, the morbidity (such as, blindness associated with trachoma) can be prevented by immediate treatment at early stage of the disease and by taking measures to prevent re-exposure to the bacteria. Chlamydial genital infections are prevented by using safe sexual practices and by prompt treatment of symptomatic patients and their partners.
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