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Nipah virus was reported to be the causative agent of encephalitis in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998 and 1999. People rearing pig populations were increasingly susceptible to encephalitis to this previously unrecognized virus. No specific antiviral agent or vaccine is available against Nipah virus.
Hendra virus is a recently described, new paramyxovirus. Hendra virus was first isolated from the cases of severe respi-ratory disease in Hendra, Australia, in 1994; hence the name Hendra virus. Infection is transmitted from infected horses to humans. Fruit bats are the natural reservoir. No specific antivi-ral agent or vaccine is available against Hendra virus.
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