Diagnosis of mumps is usually clinical. The laboratory diagno-sis is useful for diagnosis of atypical infection or manifestation of mumps without typical symptoms.
The specimens include the saliva, urine, secretions from Stensen’s duct, and the CSF. The virus is present in the saliva for 4–5 days, in the CSF for 8–9 days, and in the urine for 15 days after the onset of the symptoms.
a less sensitive method than the cell culture. The viruses can be detected in the amniotic fluid, after inoculating 6–8 days’ old embryonated egg. The virus is identified in amniotic fluid 5–6 days after inoculation by hemagglutinin inhibition assay for hemagglutinins.
Cell culture: Mumps virus can be isolated from clinical speci- mens by inoculation into monkey kidney cells, human amnion cells, or HeLa cells. The growth of the virus in monkey kidney cells is detected by the presence of multinucleated giant cells. The CPE may take as long as 1–2 weeks to appear. Virus growth in the cells can be detected much earlier by hemadsorption of guinea pig erythrocytes adsorbing the surface of virus-infected cells. Immunofluorescence test is also a very rapid test used to detect viral antigen in the infected cells as early as 2–3 days after inoculation.
The hemagglutinin inhibition, immunofluorescence assay, and ELISA are used for demonstration of viral antibodies in the serum. Detection of mumps-specific IgM antibody by IgM ELISA indicates recent and active infection. A fourfold increase between acute and convalescent phases in serum IgM antibody levels confirms the diagnosis of mumps.
No specific antiviral agents are available against mumps.
To achieve and maintain high immunization levels, primarily in infants and young children, is the principal strategy to pre-vent mumps.