Bacillus species resembling B. anthracis are collectively called asanthracoid or pseudoanthrax bacilli. These are the opportunis-tic pathogens with low virulence. They are ubiquitous organ-isms, present virtually in all environments. Some of them are frequent laboratory contaminants.
· B. cereus is the most important pathogen causing GIinfection, ocular infections, and catheter-related infections.
· Bacillus subtilis may act as an opportunistic pathogen, causingeye infections and septicemia.
· Bacillus licheniformis has also been incriminated in patientswith food poisoning.
Spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus are used to test the efficiency of sterilization by autoclaves. Some species of Bacillus are used for the production of antibiotics, such as bacitracin, tyrothri-cin, and polymyxin.