These include (a) chemoprophylaxis with antibiotics, (b) immuno-prophylaxis with vaccination, and (c) decontamination of animal products.
Chemoprophylaxis is indicated for people who have been exposed to anthrax but do not have symptoms of the disease. This is use-ful to reduce the risk or progression of disease due to inhaled anthrax spores. Ciprofloxacin, tetracyclines including doxycy-cline, or penicillin administered for a period of 60 days is effective.
Immunoprophylaxis includes vaccination in animals and in humans.
Vaccination in animals: Control of anthrax in animals isessential to prevent transmission of infection to humans. Vaccines comprising killed bacilli and/or capsular antigens produce no significant immunity. A nonencapsulated toxigenic strain has been used effectively for vaccination in livestock.
The Sterne vaccine contains spores of a nonencapsulated avirulent mutant strain of B. anthracis. The mutant strain pro-duces sublethal amounts of the toxin that induces formation of protective antibodies. The animal is protected for a year with a single injection of spore vaccine. It is extensively used in animals; however, it is not safe for human use. The vaccination of animals has also been used:
to protect people living in an area endemic for the disease and
to protect persons dealing with animal and animal products.
These include proper sterilization of animal products, such as wool, hides, etc., and improvement of personal hygiene.