Demonstration of specific IgG and IgM antibodies in the serum is useful for diagnosis of erythema infectiosum caused by B19 virus. ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), RIA (radioimmunoassay), and IFA (indirect fluorescent anti-body) for demonstration of IgG and IgM antibodies are avail-able. In pregnant women, the serum positive for IgG and IgM antibodies indicates B19 virus infection within 7 days to 4 months and a possible risk to fetus. Positive IgG but negative IgM result indicates only past infection, hence no risk to fetus. Furthermore, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is available to demonstrate B19 virus genome in the blood. The positive result suggests viremia or infection.
No specific antiviral therapy is available for treatment of B19 virus infection.
Prevention and Control
No specific measures are available for prevention of the infec-tion. Development of a vaccine against B19 virus is undergoing phase I clinical trial.