# Physics 12th Std

Online Study, Important Questions with Answer Key, Book back Exercise answers and solution, Question Papers, Textbook, Students Guide, Study Material

## Online Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki and important questions and answers ## UNIT 1: Electrostatics

=> Electrostatics
=> Historical background of electric charges
=> Basic properties of charges
=> Coulomb's Law
=> Coulomb's Law: Superposition principle
=> Coulomb's Law - Solved Example Problems
=> Electric Field
=> Electric field due to the system of point charges
=> Electric field due to continuous charge distribution
=> Electric field lines
=> Electric Field and Electric Field Lines: Solved Example Problems
=> Electric dipole
=> Electric field due to a dipole
=> Torque experienced by an electric dipole in the uniform electric field
=> Electric Dipole : Solved Example Problems
=> Electrostatic Potential energy and Electrostatic potential
=> Electric potential due to a point charge
=> Electrostatic potential at a point due to an electric dipole
=> Equi-potential Surface
=> Relation between electric field and potential
=> Electrostatic potential energy for collection of point charges
=> Electrostatic potential energy of a dipole in a uniform electric field
=> Electrostatic Potential and Potential Energy: Solved Example Problems
=> Electric Flux
=> Electric flux for closed surfaces
=> Gauss law
=> Applications of Gauss law
=> Electric Flux, Gauss Law: Solved Example Problems
=> Conductors at electrostatic equilibrium
=> Electrostatic shielding
=> Electrostatic induction
=> Dielectrics or insulators
=> Induced Electric field inside the dielectric
=> Dielectric strength
=> Electrostatic induction: Solved Example Problems
=> Capacitors
=> Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor
=> Energy stored in the capacitor
=> Applications of capacitors
=> Effect of dielectrics in capacitors
=> Capacitor in series and parallel
=> Capacitors and Capacitance: Solved Example Problems
=> Distribution of charges in a conductor
=> Distribution of charges in Action at points or Corona discharge
=> Lightning arrester or lightning conductor
=> Van de Graaff Generator
=> Distribution of Charges in a Conductor and Action at Points: Solved Example Problems
=> Electrostatics: Summary and Formulas
=> Electrostatics: Multiple choice questions with answers
=> Electrostatics: Exercises and Example Solved Problems

## UNIT 2: Current Electricity

=> Introduction
=> Electric Current
=> Conventional Current
=> Drift velocity
=> Microscopic model of current
=> Electric Current: Solved Example Problems
=> Ohm's Law
=> Resistivity
=> Resistors in series and parallel
=> Color code for Carbon resistors
=> Temperature dependence of resistivity
=> Ohm's Law: Solved Example Problems
=> Energy and Power in Electrical Circuits
=> Energy and Power in Electrical Circuits: Solved Example Problems
=> Electric Cells and Batteries
=> Electric Cells and Batteries: Solved Example Problems
=> Kirchhoff's first rule (Current rule or Junction rule)
=> Kirchhoff's Second rule (Voltage rule or Loop rule)
=> Wheatstone's bridge
=> Meter bridge
=> Potentiometer
=> Comparison of emf of two cells with a potentiometer
=> Measurement of internal resistance of a cell by potentiometer
=> Kirchhoff's Rules: Solved Example Problems
=> Heating Effect of Electric Current
=> Joule's law
=> Application of Joule's heating effect
=> Heating Effect of Electric Current, Joule's law: Solved Example Problems
=> Thermoelectric Effect
=> Seebeck effect
=> Peltier effect
=> Thomson effect
=> Current Electricity: Summary
=> Current Electricity: Multiple Choice Questions with Answer
=> Current Electricity: Questions and Answers
=> Current Electricity: Exercises and Example Solved Numerical problems

## UNIT 3: Magnetism and Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

=> Introduction to Magnetism
=> Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements
=> Basic properties of magnets
=> Introduction to Magnetism: Solved Example Problems
=> Coulomb's Inverse Square Law of Magnetism
=> Coulomb's Inverse Square Law of Magnetism: Solved Example Problems
=> Torque Acting on a Bar Magnet in Uniform Magnetic Field
=> Potential energy of a bar magnet in a uniform magnetic field
=> Tangent law and Tangent Galvanometer
=> Torque Acting on a Bar Magnet in Uniform Magnetic Field: Solved Example Problems
=> Magnetic Properties
=> Magnetic Properties: Solved Example Problems
=> Classification of Magnetic Materials
=> Hysteresis
=> Applications of hysteresis loop
=> Hysteresis: Solved Example Problems
=> Magnetic Effects of Current
=> Maxwell's right hand cork screw rule: Solved Example Problems
=> Biot - Savart Law
=> Definition and explanation of Biot- Savart law
=> Magnetic field due to long straight conductor carrying current
=> Magnetic field produced along the axis of the current carrying circular coil
=> Current loop as a magnetic dipole
=> Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron
=> Biot- Savart law: Solved Example Problems
=> Ampere's Circuital Law
=> Definition and explanation of Amp�re's circuital law
=> Magnetic field due to the current carrying wire of infinite length using Ampere's law
=> Solenoid
=> Magnetic field due to a long current carrying solenoid
=> Toroid
=> Ampere's Circuital Law: Solved Example Problems
=> Lorentz Force
=> Force on a moving charge in a magnetic field
=> Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field
=> Motion of a charged particle under crossed electric and magnetic field (velocity selector)
=> Cyclotron
=> Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field
=> Force between two long parallel current carrying conductors
=> Lorentz Force: Solved Example Problems
=> Expression for torque on a current loop placed in a magnetic field
=> Moving coil galvanometer
=> Conversion of galvanometer into ammeter and voltmeter
=> Torque on a current loop: Solved Example Problems
=> Magnetism and Magnetic Effects of Electric Current: Summary
=> Magnetism and Magnetic Effects of Electric Current: Multiple choice questions
=> Magnetism and Magnetic Effects of Electric Current: Questions and Answers
=> Magnetism and Magnetic Effects of Electric Current: Exercises and Example Solved Numerical problems

## UNIT 4: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current

=> Electromagnetic Induction
=> Magnetic Flux
=> Faraday's Experiments on Electromagnetic Induction
=> Lenz's law
=> Fleming's right hand rule
=> Motional emf from Lorentz force
=> Motional emf from Faraday's law and Energy conservation
=> Eddy Currents
=> Application of eddy currents
=> Electromagnetic Induction: Solved Example Problems
=> Eddy Currents
=> Self-inductance of a long solenoid
=> Mutual induction
=> Mutual inductance between two long co-axial solenoids
=> Eddy Currents, Self-inductance, Mutual inductance: Solved Example Problems
=> Methods of Producing Induced Emf
=> Solved Example Problems on Methods of Producing Induced Emf
=> AC Generator
=> Single phase AC generator
=> Three phase AC generator
=> Advantages of stationary armature-rotating field alternator
=> Construction and working Principle of transformer
=> Energy losses in a transformer
=> Advantages of AC in long distance power transmission
=> Illustration and Solved Example Problems on Advantages of AC in long distance power transmission
=> Power system at a glance
=> Alternating Current (AC)
=> Mean or Average value of AC
=> RMS value of AC
=> AC circuit containing pure resistor
=> AC circuit containing only an inductor
=> AC circuit containing only a capacitor
=> A capacitor blocks DC but it allows AC. Why? and How?
=> AC circuit containing a resistor, an inductor and a capacitor in series - Series RLC circuit
=> Resonance in series RLC Circuit
=> Quality factor or Q�factor
=> Solved Example Problems on Alternating Current (AC) and Circuit
=> Power In AC Circuits
=> Wattless current
=> Power factor
=> Power in AC Circuits: Solved Example Problems
=> Energy conversion during LC oscillations
=> Conservation of energy in LC oscillations
=> Analogies between LC oscillations and simple harmonic oscillations
=> Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current: Summary
=> Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current: Multiple Choice Questions
=> Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current: Questions and Answers
=> Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current: Exercises and Example Solved Numerical problems

## UNIT 5: Electromagnetic Waves

=> Electromagnetic Waves
=> Displacement current and Maxwell's correction to Ampere's circuital law
=> Maxwell's equations in integral form
=> Solved Example Problems on Displacement current and Maxwell's correction to Ampere's circuital law
=> Electromagnetic Waves: Definition
=> Production and properties of electromagnetic waves - Hertz experiment
=> Sources of electromagnetic Waves
=> Electromagnetic spectrum
=> Measuring the speed of light using the microwave oven
=> Types of Spectrum-Emission and Absorption Spectrum-Fraunhofer Lines
=> Electromagnetic Waves: Summary
=> Electromagnetic Waves: Multiple choice questions
=> Electromagnetic Waves: Questions and Answers
=> Electromagnetic Waves: Exercises and Example Solved Numerical problems

## Practical Experiments

=> Specific Resistance of the Material of the Coil Using Metre Bridge
=> Horizontal Component of Earth's Magnetic Field Using Tangent Galvanometer
=> Magnetic Field Along the Axis of a Circular Coil-Determination of BH
=> Refractive Index of the Material of the Prism
=> Wavelength of the Constituent Colours of a Composite Light Using Diffraction Grating and Spectrometer
=> Voltage-Current Characteristics of a PN Junction Diode
=> Voltage-Current Characteristics of a Zener Diode
=> Characteristics of a NPN-Junction Transistor in Common Emitter Configuration
=> Verification of Truth Tables of Logic Gates Using Integrated Circuits
=> Verification of De Morgan's Theorems
=> Suggested Questions for the Practical Examination

## UNIT 6a: Ray Optics

=> Ray Optics
=> Spherical Mirrors
=> Speed of Light
=> Refraction
=> Effects due to total internal reflection
=> Refraction in glass slab
=> Refraction at Single Spherical Surface
=> Thin Lens
=> Prism
=> Summary, Concept Map
=> Multiple choice questions
=> Conceptual Questions
=> Book Back Numerical Problems
=> Solved Example Numerical Problems
=> All Numerical Problems of Ray Optics

## UNIT 6b: Wave Optics

=> Wave Optics
=> Theories on Light
=> Wave Nature of Light
=> Interference
=> Interference: Phase difference and path difference
=> Interference: Coherent sources
=> Young's double slit experiment
=> Interference with polychromatic light and in thin films
=> Diffraction
=> Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffractions
=> Diffraction at single slit
=> Fresnel's distance
=> Difference between interference and diffraction
=> Diffraction in grating
=> Experiment to determine the wavelength of monochromatic light
=> Determination of wavelength of different colours
=> Resolution
=> Polarisation
=> Polarisation Techniques
=> Optical Instruments
=> Simple microscope
=> Compound microscope
=> Astronomical telescope
=> Terrestrial telescope
=> Reflecting telescope
=> Spectrometer
=> The eye
=> Summary, Concept Map
=> Multiple choice questions
=> Conceptual Questions
=> Book Back Numerical Problems
=> Solved Example Numerical Problems

## UNIT 7: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

=> Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
=> Electron emission
=> Hertz, Hallwachs and Lenard's observation
=> Effect of intensity of incident light on photoelectric current
=> Effect of potential difference on photoelectric current
=> Effect of frequency of incident light on stopping potential
=> Laws of photoelectric effect
=> Concept of quantization of energy
=> Particle nature of light: Einstein's explanation
=> Photo electric cells and their applications
=> Photo Electric Effect: Example Numerical Problems
=> Wave nature of particles
=> De Broglie wave length of electrons
=> Davisson - Germer experiment
=> Electron Microscope
=> Wave nature of particles: Example Solved Numerical Problems
=> X-Rays
=> Summary, Concept Map
=> Multiple Choice Questions
=> Exercise Numerical problems
=> Solved Example Numerical problems

## UNIT 8: Atomic and Nuclear Physics

=> Atomic and Nuclear Physics
=> Electric Discharge Through Gases
=> Determination of specific charge (e/m) of an electron - Thomson's experiment
=> Determination of charge of an electron - Millikan's oil drop experiment
=> Atom Models
=> J. J. Thomson's Model (Water melon model)
=> Rutherford's model
=> Bohr atom model
=> Atomic spectra
=> Nuclei
=> Composition of nucleus
=> Isotopes, isobars, and isotones
=> Atomic and nuclear masses
=> Size and density of the nucleus
=> Mass defect and binding energy
=> Binding energy curve
=> Nuclear Force
=> Half-life
=> Carbon dating
=> Discovery of Neutrons
=> Nuclear Fission
=> Nuclear Fusion
=> Summary, Concept Map
=> Multiple Choice Questions
=> Numerical Exercises Problems
=> Example Solved Numerical Problems

## UNIT 9: Semiconductor Electronics

=> Semiconductor Electronics
=> Energy band diagram of solids
=> Classification of materials
=> Types of Semiconductrors
=> P-N Junction formation
=> P-N Junction diode
=> Characteristics of a junction diode
=> Diode: Rectification
=> Diode: Breakdown mechanism
=> Zener diode
=> Optoelectronic devices using Diodes
=> The Bipolar Junction Transistor [BJT]
=> Transistor circuit configurations of BJT
=> Transistor action in the common base mode
=> Static Characteristics of Transistor in Common Emitter Mode
=> Transistor as a switch
=> Operating Point
=> Transistor as an amplifier
=> Transistor as an oscillator
=> Digital Electronics
=> Analog and Digital Signals
=> Logic gates
=> Boolean Algebra
=> De Morgan's Theorem
=> Integrated Chips
=> Summary, Concept Map
=> Multiple choice questions
=> Exercise Numerical Problems
=> Example Solved Numerical Problems

## UNIT 10: Communication Systems

=> Communication Systems
=> Modulation
=> Amplitude Modulation (AM)
=> Frequency Modulation (FM)
=> Phase Modulation (PM)
=> Elements of an Electronic Communication System
=> Basic Definitions in Electronic Communication System
=> Bandwidth of Transmission System
=> Antenna Size
=> Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves
=> Ground Wave Propagation
=> Sky Wave Propagation
=> Space Wave Propagation
=> Satellite Communication
=> Fibre Optic Communication
=> Mobile Communication
=> Internet
=> Global Positioning System
=> Application of Information and Communication Technology in Agriculture, Fisheries and Mining
=> Summary, Concept Map
=> Multiple Choice Questions

## UNIT 11: Recent Developments in Physics

=> Recent Developments in Physics
=> Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
=> Robotics
=> Physics in medical diagnosis and therapy
=> Summary, Concept Map
=> Multiple Choice Questions

## Practical Experiments

=> Specific Resistance of the Material of the Coil Using Metre Bridge
=> Horizontal Component of Earth's Magnetic Field Using Tangent Galvanometer
=> Magnetic Field Along the Axis of a Circular Coil-Determination of BH
=> Refractive Index of the Material of the Prism
=> Wavelength of the Constituent Colours of a Composite Light Using Diffraction Grating and Spectrometer
=> Voltage-Current Characteristics of a PN Junction Diode
=> Voltage-Current Characteristics of a Zener Diode
=> Characteristics of a NPN-Junction Transistor in Common Emitter Configuration
=> Verification of Truth Tables of Logic Gates Using Integrated Circuits
=> Verification of De Morgan's Theorems
=> Suggested Questions for the Practical Examination