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Recent Developments in Physics - Summary, Concept Map | 12th Physics : UNIT 11 : Recent Developments in Physics

Chapter: 12th Physics : UNIT 11 : Recent Developments in Physics

Summary, Concept Map

Physics : Recent Developments in Physics : Summary, Concept Map

Recent Developments in Physics


• Salient physics principles (covered in the higher secondary physics) are the foundation for technology break through.

• Physics is the basic building block for Science, Engineering, Technology and Medicine. Nano science is the science of objects with typical sizes of 1–100 nm.

• Nano means one-billionth of a metre that is 10–9 m.

• Nanotechnology is a technology involving the design, production, characterization, and applications of nano structural materials.

• If the particle of a solid is of size less than 100 nm, it is said to be a ‘nano solid’.

• When the particle size exceeds 100 nm, it forms a ‘bulk solid’.

• Nano form of the material shows strikingly different properties when compared to its bulk counterpart.

• Quantum confinement effects and surface effects are the two important phenomena that govern nano properties.

• Nanoscience and technology is the interdisciplinary area covering its applications in various fields.

• Nano scale structures existed in nature long before scientists began studying them in laboratories.

• There are two ways of preparing the nanomaterials, top down and bottom up approaches.

• Nanotechnology applications cover various fields.

• The major concern with nano application is that the nanoparticles have the dimensions same as that of the biological molecules such as proteins.

• Nano particles can easily get absorbed onto the surface of living organisms and they might enter the tissues and fluids of the body.

• The adsorbing nature depends on the surface of the nanoparticle.

• It is possible to deliver a drug directly to a specific cell in the body by designing the surface of a nanoparticle.

• Nanoparticles of a few nanometers size may reach well inside biomolecules, which is not possible for larger nanoparticles.

• Nanoparticles can also cross cell membranes.

• The inhaled nanoparticles reach the blood and that may also reach other sites such as the liver, heart or blood cells.

• Robotics is an integrated study of mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, computer engineering, and science.

• Robot is a mechanical device designed with electronic circuitry and programmed to perform a specific task.

• The robotic system mainly consists of sensors, power supplies, control systems, manipulators and necessary software.

• The key components of a robot are Power conversion unit, Actuators, Electric motors, Pneumatic Air Muscles, Muscle wires, Piezo Motors and Ultrasonic Motors, Sensors, and Robot locomotion.

• Six main types of industrial robots are Cartesian, SCARA, Cylindrical, Delta, Polar and Vertically articulated robot.

• Six-axis robots are ideal for Arc Welding, Spot Welding, Material Handling, Machine Tending.

• Five major fields of robotics: Human-robot interface, Mobility, Manipulation, Programming and Sensors.

• The aim of artificial intelligence is to bring in human like behavior in robots.

• Artificial intelligence works on face recognition, providing response to players’ actions in computer games, taking decisions based on previous actions, regulating the traffic by analyzing the density of traffic on roads and translate words from one language to another.

• Materials used to make robots: aluminum and steel are the most common metals.

• Aluminum is a softer metal and is therefore easier to work with.

• Steel is several times stronger.

• Due to the inherent strength of metal, robot bodies can be made using sheet, bar, rod, channel, and other shapes.

• Robots have many advantages in various applications but also have several disadvantages.

• In outer space robots are used for exploring stars, planets etc., investigation of the mineralogy of the rocks and soils on Mars, analysis of elements found in rocks and soils.

• Household robots are used as vacuum cleaners, floor cleaners, gutter cleaners, lawn mowing, pool cleaning, and to open and close doors.

• Industrial Robots are used for welding, cutting, robotic water jet cutting, robotic laser cutting, lifting, sorting, bending, manufacturing, assembling, packing, transport, handling hazardous materials like nuclear waste, weaponry, laboratory research, mass production of consumer and industrial goods.

• Nano-robots are being developed to be in the blood stream to perform small surgical procedures, to fight against bacteria, repairing individual cell in the body.

• The development in medical field has been proportional to the evolution of physics.

• Therecent medical technology includes virtual reality, precision medicine, healthwearables, artificial organs, 3D printing, wireless brain sensors, robotic surgery, smart inhalers.

• Particle physics deals with fundamental particles of nature. Protons and neutrons are made of quarks.

• Cosmology is the branch that involves the origin and evolution of the universe.

• Accelerated mass emits gravitational waves which are very weak.

• Black holes are the strongest source of gravitational waves.



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