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Chapter: 12th Physics : Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current

Power system at a glance

The generating stations present in a region are interconnected to form a common electrical network and are operated in parallel.

Power system at a glance

The generating stations present in a region are interconnected to form a common electrical network and are operated in parallel. This is to ensure uninterrupted power supply to a large number of consumers in the case of failure of any power station or a sudden increase of load beyond the capacity of the generating station.

The various elements such as generating stations, transmission lines, the substations and distributors etc are all tied together for continuous generation and consumption of electric energy.This is called power system. A part of power system consisting of the sub-stations and transmission lines is known as a grid.

In a power system, the transfer of electric power produced to the consumer is carried out in two stages which are further sub-divided into two as given below.

1) Transmission stage

Primary transmission stage

Secondary transmission stage

2) Distribution stage

Primary distribution stage

Secondary transmission stage


and then it is supplied to individual consumers. These two stages of power transmission is presented in a single-line diagram shown in figure. The central system usually generates power at 11 kV which is stepped up to 132 kV and is transmitted through transmission lines. This is known as primary or high-voltage transmission.

This high-voltage power reaches receiving station at the outskirts of the city where it is stepped down to 33 kV and is transmitted as secondary or low-voltage transmission to sub-stations situated within the city limits.

In the primary distribution system, the voltage is reduced from 33 kV to 3.3kV at sub-stations and is given to distribution sub-stations. The voltage is finally brought down to 440V or 230V at distribution sub-station from where secondary distribution is done to factories (440V) and homes (230V) via distribution networks.

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12th Physics : Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current : Power system at a glance |


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