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Energy losses in a transformer
Transformers do not have any moving parts so that its efficiency is much higher than that of rotating machines like generators and motors. But there are many factors which lead to energy loss in a transformer.
This loss takes place in transformer core. Hysteresis loss (Refer section 3.6) and eddy current loss are known as core loss or Iron loss. When transformer core is magnetized and demagnetized repeatedly by the alternating voltage applied across primary coil, hysteresis takes place due to which some energy is lost in the form of heat. Hysteresis loss is minimized by using steel of high silicon content in making transformer core.
Alternating magnetic flux in the core induces eddy currents in it. Therefore there is energy loss due to the flow of eddy current, called eddy current loss which is minimized by using very thin laminations of transformer core.
Transformer windings have electrical resistance. When an electric current flows through them, some amount of energy is dissipated due to Joule heating. This energy loss is called copper loss which is minimized by using wires of larger diameter.
Flux leakage happens when the magnetic lines of primary coil are not completely linked with secondary coil. Energy loss due to this flux leakage is minimized by winding coils one over the other.
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