FIBRE OPTIC COMMUNICATION
The method of transmitting information from one place to another in terms of light pulses through an optical fiber is called fiber optic communication. It works under the principle of total internal reflection.
Light has very high frequency (400 THz – 790 THz) than microwave radio systems. The fibers are made up of silica glass or silicon dioxide which is highly abundant on Earth.
Now it has been replaced with materials such as chalcogenide glasses, fluoroaluminate crystalline materials because they provide larger infrared wavelength and better transmission capability.
As fibers are not electrically conductive, it is preferred in places where multiple channels are to be laid and isolation is required from electrical and electromagnetic interference.
Optical fiber system has a number of applications namely, international communication, inter-city communication, data links, plant and traffic control and defense applications.
• Fiber cables are very thin and weigh lesser than copper cables.
• This system has much larger band width. This means that its information carrying capacity is larger.
• Fiber optic system is immune to electrical interferences.
• Fiber optic cables are cheaper than copper cables.
• Fiber optic cables are more fragile when compared to copper wires.
• It is an expensive technology.
Fiber optic cables provide the fastest transmission rate compared to any other form of transmission. It can provide data speed of 1 Gbps for homes and business. Multimode fibers operate at the speed of 10 Mbps. Recent developments in optical communication provide the data speed at the rate of 25 Gbps
Most transatlantic telecommunication cables between the United States of America and Europe are fiber optic.