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Thermoelectric Effect - Peltier effect | 12th Physics : Current Electricity

Chapter: 12th Physics : Current Electricity

Peltier effect

when an electric current is passed through a circuit of a thermocouple, heat is evolved at one junction and absorbed at the other junction. This is known as Peltier effect.

Conversion of temperature differences into electrical voltage and vice  versa is known as thermoelectric effect. A thermoelectric device generates voltage when there is a temperature difference on each side. If a voltage is applied, it generates a temperature difference.


Peltier effect

In 1834, Peltier discovered that when an electric current is passed through a circuit of a thermocouple, heat is evolved at one junction and absorbed at the other junction. This is known as Peltier effect.


In the Cu-Fe thermocouple the junctions A and B are maintained at the same temperature. Let a current from a battery flow through the thermocouple (Figure 2.36 (a)). At the junction A, where the current flows from Cu to Fe, heat is absorbed and the junction A becomes cold. At the junction B, where the current flows from Fe to Cu heat is liberated and it becomes hot. When the direction of current is reversed, junction A gets heated and junction B gets cooled as shown in the Figure 2.36(b). Hence Peltier effect is reversible.

 




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12th Physics : Current Electricity : Peltier effect | Thermoelectric Effect


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