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Prologue What Is Psychology

Prologue: What Is Psychology?
Psychology’s Diverse Methods and Perspectives
The Neural Basis of Emotional Memory
The Evolutionary Basis for Emotional Remembering
Cognitive Influences on Emotional Memory
Social Influences on Emotional Memory
The Cultural Setting of Emotional Memory
A Developmental Perspective on Emotional Memory
Disorders of Emotional Memory
What Unites Psychology?

Research Methods

Psychology: Research Methods
Psychology: Making Observations
Making Observations: Defining the Question
Making Observations: Systematically Collecting Data
Making Observations: Defining the Sample
Making Observations: Assessing External Validity
Making Observations: Monitoring Demand Characteristics
Psychology: Working With Data
Working With Data: Descriptive Statistics
Working With Data: Inferential Statistics
Psychology: Observational Studies
Establishing Cause and Effect: the Power of Experiments
Experimental Groups versus Control Groups
Random Assignment
Within-Subject Comparisons
Internal Validity
Beyond the Single Experiment
Research Ethics
The Power of Science
Some Final Thoughts: Methodological Eclecticism

The Genetic and Evolutionary Roots of Behavior

The Genetic and Evolutionary Roots of Behavior
Genetics and DNA
Evolution by Natural Selection
The Principles of Natural Selection
Genes and Evolution
Evidence for Evolution by Natural Selection
The Unity of Life
The Genetics and Evolution of Behavior
The Biological Roots of Smiling
The Genetics of Intelligence
The Evolution of Mating Patterns

The Brain and the Nervous System

The Brain and the Nervous System
The Organism as a Machine
Building Blocks of the Nervous System
Communication among Neurons
Activity and Communication within the Neuron
Explaining the Action Potential
Propagation of the Action Potential
All-or-None Law - Communication among Neurons
The Synapse - Communication among Neurons
The Synaptic Mechanism
Drugs and Neurotransmitters
Communication through the Bloodstream
Methods for Studying the Nervous System
Methods for Studying the Nervous System: Recording from Individual Neurons
Methods for Studying the Nervous System: Studying the Effects of Brain Damage
Methods for Studying the Nervous System: Recording from the Whole Brain
The Power of Combining Techniques
The Architecture of the Nervous System
The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
The Anatomy of the Brain
The Cerebral Cortex
The Cerebral Cortex: Projection Areas
Cerebral Cortex: Association Areas
The Results of Cortical Damage
Plasticity: Changes in Neuronal Connections
Plasticity: Cortical Reorganization
Plasticity: New Neurons
Plasticity: Repairing Damage to the Nervous System


Psychology: Sensation
The Origins of Knowledge
Psychophysics: Sensory Thresholds
Psychophysics: Detection and Decision
A Survey of the Senses
A Survey of the Senses: Sensory Coding
A Survey of the Senses: Sensory Adaptation
A Survey of the Senses: The Vestibular Sense
A Survey of the Senses: The Skin Senses
A Survey of the Senses: Pain
A Survey of the Senses: Smell
A Survey of the Senses: Taste
The Stimulus: Sound
From Sound Waves to Hearing
The Stimulus: Light
Gathering the Stimulus: The Eye
The Visual Receptors
Vision Contrast Effects
Vision Color
The Neural Basis of Color Vision
Vision Perceiving Shapes


Psychology: Perception
Form Perception: What Is It?: The Importance of Features
Form Perception: What Is It?: The Importance of Organization
Network Models of Perception
The Neuroscience of Vision
Perceptual Constancy
Distance Perception: Where Is It?
Motion Perception: What Is It Doing?
Perceptual Selection: Attention
Perception: Other Modalities


Introspection and the Functions of Consciousness
Consciousness: Translating Thoughts into Words
Consciousness: The Cognitive Unconscious
Consciousness: Brain Damage and Unconscious Functioning
Consciousness: Unconscious Attributions
Consciousness: Mistaken Introspections
The Function of Consciousness
Neural Basis for Consciousness
Neural Basis for Consciousness: The Mind-Body Problem
The Many Brain Areas Needed for Consciousness
Neural Correlates of Consciousness
The Global Workspace Hypothesis
Varieties of Consciousness
Consciousness: Sleep
Consciousness: Sleep and Wake Cycles
Consciousness: The Need For Sleep
Consciousness: The Function of Sleep
Consciousness: Dreams
Why Do We Dream ?
Sleep, Dreams, and Consciousness
Consciousness: Hypnosis
Consciousness: Religious States(Meditation)
Drug-Induced Changes in Consciousness
Drug-Induced Changes in Consciousness: Depressants
Drug-Induced Changes in Consciousness: Stimulants
Drug-Induced Changes in Consciousness: Marijuana
Drug-Induced Changes in Consciousness: Hallucinogens
Drug-Induced Changes in Consciousness: Addiction


Psychology: Learning
The Perspective of Learning Theory
Classical Conditioning
Classical Conditioning: Pavlov and the Conditioned Response
The Major Phenomena of Classical Conditioning
Classical Conditioning: Acquisition of Conditioned Responses
Classical Conditioning: Extinction
Classical Conditioning: Generalization
Classical Conditioning: Discrimination
Classical Conditioning: The CS as a “Signal”
Classical Conditioning: Contingency
Classical Conditioning: The Absence of Contingency
Classical Conditioning: Role of Surprise
Classical Conditioning: The Relationship between the CR and the UR
Instrumental Conditioning
Instrumental Conditioning: Thorndike and the Law of Effect
Instrumental Conditioning: Skinner and Operant Behavior
Instrumental Conditioning: The Major Phenomena of Instrumental Conditioning
Instrumental Conditioning: Changing Behaviors or Acquiring Knowledge?
Observational Learning
Varieties of Learning
Biological Influences on Learning: Belongingness
Different Types of Learning
Similarities in How Different Species Learn
The Neural Basis for Learning


Psychology: Memory
Acquisition, Storage, Retrieval
Acquisition: Working Memory, Long-Term Memory
Acquisition: Establishing Long-Term Memories
Psychology: Storage
Psychology: Retrieval
Psychology: Memory Gaps, Memory Errors
Memory Gaps, Memory Errors: Forgetting
Psychology: Memory Intrusions
Psychology: Memory: An Overall Assessment
Psychology: Varieties of Memory
Psychology: Episodic and Semantic Memory
Psychology: Possible Subdivisions of Episodic Memory
Psychology: Explicit and Implicit Memory


Psychology: Thinking
Mental Representations
Judgment: Drawing Conclusions from Experience
Judgment: The Availability Heuristic
Judgment: The Representativeness Heuristic
Judgment: Thinking Dual-Process Theories
Reasoning: Drawing Implications from Our Beliefs
Reasoning: Confirmation Bias
Reasoning: Faulty Logic
Reasoning: Triggers for Good Reasoning
Reasoning: Judgment and Reasoning: An Overview
Decision Making: Choosing Among Options
Decision Making: Framing Effects
Decision Making: Affective Forecasting
Decision Making: Too Many Options
Decision Making: Reason-Based Choice
Decision Making: An Overview
Problem Solving: Finding a Path Toward a Goal
Problem Solving: The Role of the Goal State
Problem Solving: Hierarchical Organization
Problem Solving: Automaticity
Problem Solving: Obstacles to Problem Solving
Problem Solving: Overcoming Obstacles to Solutions
Problem Solving: Restructuring
Problem Solving: Creative Thinking
Problem Solving: Experts


Psychology: Language
Building Blocks of Language
Building Blocks of Language: The Sound Units
Building Blocks of Language: Morphemes and Words
Building Blocks of Language: Phrases and Sentences
How Language Conveys Meaning
Psychology Language: Meanings of Words
Psychology Language: The Meanings of Sentences
Psychology Language: How We Understand
How We Learn a Language
The Social Origins of Language Learning
Discovering the Building Blocks of Language
The Growth of Word Meaning
The Progression to Adult Language
Language Learning in Changed Environments
Wild Children
Isolated Children
Language without Sound
Language without a Model
Children Deprived of Access to Some of the Meanings
Children Exposed to More Than One Language: The Case of Bilingualism
Language Learning with Changed Endowments
The Sensitive Period Hypothesis
Language in Nonhumans
Language and Thought
How Language Connects to Thought
Do People Who Talk Differently Come to Understand the World Differently?
How Can We Study Language and Thought?


Intelligence Testing
What Is Intelligence? The Psychometric Approach
The Logic of Psychometrics
Factor Analysis and the Idea of General Intelligence
A Hierarchical Model of Intelligence
Intelligence: Fluid and Crystallized G
The Building Blocks of Intelligence
Intelligence Beyond the IQ Test
The Roots of Intelligence
The Roots of Intelligence: The Politics of IQ Testing
The Roots of Intelligence: The Problems with “Nature vs. Nurture”
The Roots of Intelligence: Genetics and Individual IQ
The Roots of Intelligence: Environment and Individual IQ
The Roots of Intelligence: Heritability Ratios
The Roots of Intelligence: Group Differences in IQ
Group Differences in IQ: Between - Group and Within – Group Differences
Group Differences in IQ: Comparisons Between Men And Women
Group Differences in IQ: Stereo Type Threat

Motivation and Emotion

Motivation and Emotion
Motivational States
Hunger, Eating, and Obesity
Physiological Aspects of Hunger and Eating
Cultural and Cognitive Aspects of Hunger and Eating
Threat and Aggression
Physiological Aspects of Threat and Aggression
Cultural and Cognitive Aspects of Threat and Aggression
Sexual Behavior
Physiological Aspects of Sexuality
Cultural and Cognitive Aspects of Sexuality
Sexual Orientation
Motives Beyond Drives
The Diversity of Motives
Emotion and Emotion Regulation
The Many Facets of Emotion
The Functions of Emotion
Emotion Regulation

Social Psychology

Social Psychology
Social Cognition
Social Cognition: Attribution
Social Cognition: Person Perception
Social Cognition: Attitudes
Social Influence
Social Influence: Conformity
Social Influence: Obedience
Social Influence: Compliance
Social Influence: Group Dynamics
Social Relations
Social Relations: Helping and Altruism
Social Relations: Attraction
Social Relations: Love


Psychology: Development
Prenatal Development
Infancy and Childhood
Physical and Sensorimotor Development in Infancy and Childhood
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Piaget ’S Stage Theory
Beyond Piaget
Early Conceptions of the Physical World
Number and Mathematical Reasoning
Social Cognition and Theory of Mind
Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Childhood
The Earliest Interactions - Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Childhood
Attachment - Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Childhood
Differences in Attachment - Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Childhood
The Role of Temperament - Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Childhood
The Role of Culture - Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Childhood
The Role of Parenting Styles - Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Childhood
The Impact of Child Care - Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Childhood
The Effects of Domestic Conflict and Divorce - Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Childhood
What Happens When there is No Attachment ? - Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Childhood
Peer Relationships - Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Childhood
Development of Moral Thinking - Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Childhood
Conscience and Moral Feeling - Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Childhood
Physical Development in Adolescence
Cognitive Development in Adolescence
Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
Adulthood and Older Age
Physical and Sensorimotor Changes in Adulthood
Cognitive Changes in Adulthood
Socioemotional Development in Adulthood


The Trait Approach: Defining Our Differences
The Trait Approach: The Big Five
The Trait Approach: The Consistency Controversy
The Trait Approach: Traits and Biology
The Trait Approach: Traits and the Environment
The Trait Approach: Contributions of the Trait Approach
Psychodynamic Approach: Probing the Depths
Psychodynamic Approach: Psychoanalysis: Theory and Practice
Psychodynamic Approach: Psychological Defenses and Development
Psychodynamic Approach: The Empirical Basis of Freud’s Claims
Psychodynamic Approach: Psychodynamic Formulations after Freud
Psychodynamic Approach: Contributions of the Psychodynamic Approach
The Humanistic Approach: Appreciating Our Potential
The Humanistic Approach: Phenomenology and Self-actualization
The Humanistic Approach: The Self
The Humanistic Approach: Positive Psychology
Contributions of the Humanistic Approach
The Social-Cognitive Approach: The Power of Beliefs
Origins of the Social-Cognitive Approach
Key Social-Cognitive Concepts
Contributions of the Social-Cognitive Approach


Conceptions of Mental Disorders
Defining Mental Disorders
Assessing Mental Disorders
Psychopathology: Making Diagnoses Using the DSM
Psychopathology: The Costs and Benefits of Labeling
Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety Disorders: Phobias
Anxiety Disorders: Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Stress Disorders
Roots of the Anxiety Disorders
Mood Disorders
Mood Disorders: Depression
Mood Disorders: Bipolar Disorder
The Roots of Mood Disorders
Schizophrenia: Signs and Symptoms
The Roots of Schizophrenia
Developmental Disorders
Eating Disorders
Dissociative Disorders
Personality Disorders

Treatment of Mental Disorders

Treatment of Mental Disorders
Treatments Past and Present
Early Treatments for Mental Disorders
Current Treatments for Mental Disorders
Psychological Treatments
Psychological Treatments: Psychodynamic Approaches
Psychological Treatments: Humanistic Approaches
Psychological Treatments: Behavioral Approaches
Psychological Treatments: Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches
Psychological Treatments: Integrated Treatments and Eclecticism
Psychological Treatments: Beyond One-on-One Therapy
Biomedical Treatment of Mental Disorders
Pharmacological Treatments of Mental Disorders
Nonpharmacological Treatments of Mental Disorders
Common Factors and Combined Treatments of Mental Disorders
The Importance of Empirically Supported Treatments of Mental Disorders
Logic of Outcome Research - Evaluating Treatment of Mental Disorders
Evaluating Psychological vs. Biomedical Treatments of Mental Disorders
Efficacy vs. Utility - Treatments of Mental Disorders
Meta-Analyses of Therapy Outcome - Treatment of Mental Disorders
Does One Size Fit All? - Treatment of Mental Disorders

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