In the anxiety disorders, the primary symptoms involve heightened levels of anxiety. In the mood disorders, the predominant disturbances lie in positive and negative mood. Specifically, the DSM distinguishes depression (also called major depressive disorder or unipolar depression) and bipolar disorder (formerly called manic-depressive illness). These disorders (sometimes called affective disorders) are characterized by emotional and energetic extremes—the despair of depression, the maelstrom of mania, or both.
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