Chemistry 11th std

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Chemistry  11th std

Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Chemistry and Chemical Calculations


=> Chemistry - the Centre of Life
=> Classification of Matter
=> Atomic Masses
=> Molecular Mass
=> Mole Concept
=> Avogadro Number
=> Molar Mass
=> Molar Volume
=> Gram Equivalent Concept
=> Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula
=> Determination of Empirical Formula from Elemental Analysis Data
=> Calculation of Molecular Formula from Empirical Formula
=> Stoichiometry
=> Stoichiometric Calculations
=> Limiting Reagents
=> Redox Reactions
=> Oxidation Number
=> Types of Redox Reactions
=> Balancing (the Equation) of Redox Reactions
=> Summary - Chemistry: Basic Concepts of Chemistry and Chemical Calculations
=> Evaluate Yourself: Basic Concepts of Chemistry and Chemical Calculations
=> Choose the best answer: Basic Concepts of Chemistry and Chemical Calculations
=> Brief questions and answers: Basic Concepts of Chemistry and Chemical Calculations
=> Solved Example Problems: Basic Concepts of Chemistry and Chemical Calculations

Chapter 2 Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom


=> Introduction to atom models
=> Bohr atom model
=> Limitation of Bohr's atom model
=> Wave particle duality of matter
=> Quantisation of angular momentum and de Broglie concept
=> Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
=> Quantum mechanical model of atom - Schrodinger Equation
=> Main features of the quantum mechanical model of atom
=> Quantum numbers
=> Shapes of atomic orbitals
=> Energies of orbitals
=> Filling of orbitals
=> Aufbau principle
=> Pauli Exclusion Principle
=> Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity
=> Electronic configuration of atoms
=> Stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals
=> Summary: Chemistry: Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom
=> Evaluate Yourself: Chemistry: Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom
=> Choose the best answer: Chemistry: Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom
=> Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom
=> Solved Example Problems: Chemistry: Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom

Chapter 3 Periodic Classification of Elements


=> Periodic Classification of Elements
=> Classification of Elements
=> Mendeleev's Classification
=> Anomalies of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table
=> Moseley's Work and Modern Periodic Law
=> Modern Periodic Table
=> Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Number Greater than 100
=> Grouping of Elements based on Electronic Configurations
=> Periodic Trends in Properties
=> Atomic radius
=> Ionic radius
=> Ionisation enthalpy or Ionisation Energy
=> Electron gain enthalpy (Electron Affinity)
=> Electronegativity
=> Periodic Trends in Chemical Properties
=> Anomalous properties of second period elements
=> Periodic Trends and Chemical Reactivity
=> Summary: Chemistry Periodic Classification of Elements
=> Evaluate Yourself: Chemistry Periodic Classification of Elements
=> Choose the best Answer: Chemistry Periodic Classification of Elements
=> Brief Questions and Answers: Chemistry Periodic Classification of Elements

Chapter 4 Hydrogen


=> Hydrogen
=> Position in Periodic Table
=> Isotopes of Hydrogen
=> Ortho- and Para-Hydrogen
=> Preparation of Hydrogen
=> Properties of Hydrogen
=> Uses of Hydrogen
=> Water - Compounds of Hydrogen
=> Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
=> Hard and Soft Water
=> Heavy Water
=> Chemical properties and Uses of heavy water
=> Hydrogen Peroxide
=> Physical and Chemical properties of Hydrogen Peroxide
=> Uses of hydrogen peroxide
=> Structure of hydrogen peroxide
=> Hydrides
=> Hydrogen Bonding
=> Summary: Chemistry: Hydrogen
=> Choose the best Answer: Hydrogen (Chemistry)
=> Brief Questions: Hydrogen (Chemistry)

Chapter 5 Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals


=> s-Block Elements
=> Alkali metals
=> General characteristics of alkali metals
=> Distinctive behavior of lithium
=> Chemical properties of alkali metals
=> Uses of alkali metals
=> General characteristics of the compounds of alkali metals
=> Important compounds of alkali metals
=> Sodium Carbonate (Washing soda): Properties and uses
=> Sodium chloride NaCl (Cooking salt or Table salt)
=> Sodium hydroxide
=> Sodium bicarbonate (Backing soda)
=> Biological importance of sodium and potassium
=> Alkaline earth metals
=> General characteristics of alkaline earth metals
=> Distinctive behavior of beryllium
=> Chemical properties of alkaline earth metals
=> Uses of alkaline earth metals
=> General characteristics of the compounds of the alkaline earth metals
=> Important compounds of calcium
=> Quick lime, CaO: Preparation, Properties, Uses
=> Calcium hydroxide: Preparation, Properties, Uses
=> Gypsum: Preparation, Properties, Uses
=> Calcium Sulphate (Plaster of Paris): Preparation, Properties, Uses
=> Biological importance of magnesium and calcium
=> Summary: Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals (Chemistry)
=> Choose the best Answer: Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals (Chemistry)
=> Brief Questions: Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals (Chemistry)

Chapter 6 Gaseous State


=> Gaseous State
=> The Gas Laws
=> Boyle’s Law: Pressure-Volume Relationship
=> Charles Law (Volume-temperature relationship)
=> Gay-Lussac’s Law (Pressure-temperature relationship)
=> Avogadro’s Hypothesis
=> Ideal gas equation
=> Mixture of gases - Dalton’s law of partial pressures
=> Application of Dalton’s law
=> Graham’ s Law of Diffusion
=> Solved Example Problems: Dalton’s law of partial pressures
=> Deviation from ideal gas behaviour
=> Compressibility factor Z
=> Compressibility factor for real gases
=> Van der Waals Equation
=> Pressure-Volume isotherms of Carbon dioxide
=> Derivation of critical constants from van der Waals constant
=> Liquefaction of gases
=> Summary: Gaseous State (Chemistry)
=> Evaluate Yourself: Gaseous State (Chemistry)
=> Choose the best Answer: Gaseous State (Chemistry)
=> Brief Questions and Answers: Gaseous State (Chemistry)
=> Solved Example Problems: Gaseous State (Chemistry)

Chapter 7 Thermodynamics


=> Thermodynamics
=> Thermodynamics System and Surrounding
=> Types of Thermodynamic systems
=> Properties of the Thermodynamics System
=> Thermodynamic processes and its Types
=> Thermodynamics State functions, path functions
=> Internal Energy (U): Importance, Characteristics of Internal Energy
=> Thermodynamics: Heat(q) and Work(w)
=> Work involved in expansion and compression processes
=> Zeroth law of thermodynamics
=> First Law of Thermodynamics
=> Mathematical statement of the first law
=> Solved Example Problem: First Law of Thermodynamics
=> Enthalpy (H)
=> Relation between enthalpy 'H' and internal energy 'U'
=> Enthalpy Changes for Different Types of Reactions and Phase Transitions
=> Thermochemical Equations
=> Solved Example Problem: Thermochemical Equations
=> Measurement of ΔU and ΔH using Calorimetry
=> Measurement of ΔU using bomb calorimeter
=> Measurement of ΔH using coffee cup calorimeter
=> Applications of the heat of combustion
=> Hess’s law of constant heat Summation
=> Lattice energy
=> Born - Haber cycle for determining the lattice enthalpy of NaCl
=> Second Law of thermodynamics
=> Need for the second law of thermodynamics
=> Various statements of the second law of thermodynamics
=> Solved Example Problem: Second Law of thermodynamics
=> Gibbs free energy (G)
=> Criteria for spontaneity of a process
=> Relationship between standard free energy change (ΔG0) and equilibrium constant (Keq)
=> Solved Example Problems: Gibbs free energy (G)
=> Third law of Thermodynamics
=> Summary: Thermodynamics(Chemistry)
=> Evaluate Yourself: Thermodynamics(Chemistry)
=> Choose the best answer: Thermodynamics
=> Brief Questions and Answers: Thermodynamics
=> Solved Example Problem: Thermodynamics(Chemistry)

Values


=> List of Fundamental constants in Chemistry
=> List of Critical constants of selected gases
=> List of Van der waals constants for select gases
=> List of Molar heat capacities of select compounds
=> List of Thermodynamic data for select compounds

Chapter 8 Physical and Chemical Equilibrium


=> Physical and chemical equilibrium
=> Physical equilibrium
=> Equilibrium involving dissolution of solids or gases in liquids
=> Chemical Equilibrium
=> Dynamic nature of equilibrium
=> Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria
=> Law of mass action
=> Equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc)
=> Relation between Kp and Kc
=> Equilibrium constants for heterogeneous equilibrium
=> Application of equilibrium constant
=> Le-Chatelier's Principle
=> Van't Hoff Equation
=> How does oxygen exchanges between maternal and fetal blood in a pregnant women?
=> Summary - Chemistry: Physical and Chemical Equilibrium
=> Evaluate Yourself - Chemistry: Physical and Chemical Equilibrium
=> Choose the best answer: Chemistry: Physical and Chemical Equilibrium
=> Brief questions and answers: Physical and Chemical Equilibrium
=> Solved Example Problems: Physical and Chemical Equilibrium

Chapter 9 Solutions


=> Solutions: Introduction
=> Types of solutions
=> Expressing concentration of solutions
=> Solubility of the solutes
=> Factors influencing the solubility of the solutes
=> Henry's law
=> Limitations of Henry’s law
=> Why deep-sea divers use air diluted with helium gas in their air tanks?
=> Vapour pressure of liquid
=> Vapour pressure of liquid solutions
=> Vapour pressure of binary solution of liquid in liquids
=> Vapour pressure of binary solution of solids in liquids
=> Ideal and non-ideal solutions
=> Factors responsible for deviation of solution from Raoult’s law
=> Colligative properties
=> Determination of molar mass weights from relative lowering of vapour pressure
=> Elevation of boiling point
=> Determination of molar mass of solute from depression in freezing point
=> Osmosis and osmotic pressure
=> Determination of molar mass from osmotic pressure
=> Significances of osmotic pressure over other colligative properties
=> Isotonic solutions
=> Reverse osmosis (RO)
=> Abnormal molar mass
=> Summary - Chemistry: Solutions
=> Evaluate Yourself: Chemistry: Solutions
=> Choose the best answer: Chemistry: Solutions
=> Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Solutions
=> Solved Example Problems: Chemistry: Solutions

Chapter 10 Chemical bonding


=> Chemical bonding: Introduction
=> Kossel - Lewis approach to chemical bonding
=> Types of chemical bonds
=> Covalent bonds
=> Representing a covalent bond - Lewis structure (Lewis dot structure)
=> Lewis structure for carbon dioxide
=> Lewis structures for exceptions to octet rule
=> Ionic or electrovalent bond
=> Coordinate covalent bond
=> Bond parameters
=> Bond length
=> Bond order
=> Bond angle
=> Bond enthalpy
=> Resonance - Chemical bonding
=> Polarity of Bonds
=> Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory
=> Valence Bond Theory
=> Orbital Overlap
=> Formation of hydrogen Molecule
=> Types of hybridisation and geometry of molecules
=> Molecular orbital theory
=> Salient features of Molecular orbital theory
=> Linear combination of atomic orbitals
=> Bonding in some Homonuclear di-atomic molecules
=> Metallic bonding
=> Summary - Chemistry: Chemical bonding
=> Choose the best answer: Chemistry: Chemical bonding
=> Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Chemical bonding

Chapter 11 Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry


=> Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry
=> Characteristics of organic compounds
=> Classification of organic compounds
=> Nomenclature of organic compounds
=> IUPAC rules for nomenclature of organic compounds
=> Nomenclature of Aromatic Compound
=> Structural representation of organic compounds
=> Isomerism in organic compounds and its types
=> Constitutional isomers (Formerly structural isomers) and its types
=> Stereoisomerism
=> Geometrical isomerism
=> Optical Isomerism
=> Detection of elements(carbon and hydrogen) in organic compounds
=> Estimation of carbon and hydrogen
=> Estimation of sulphur
=> Estimation of halogens
=> Estimation of phosphorus
=> Estimation of nitrogen
=> Dumas method - Estimation of nitrogen
=> Kjeldahls method - Estimation of nitrogen
=> Purification of organic compounds
=> Crystallization - Purification of organic compounds
=> Chromatography - Purification of organic compounds
=> Choose the best answer: Chemistry: Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry
=> Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry
=> Evaluate Yourself: Chemistry: Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry
=> Solved Example Problems: Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry

Chapter 12 Basic concepts of organic reactions


=> Basic concepts of organic reactions
=> Fission of a covalent bond
=> Nucleophiles and elctrophiles
=> Electron movement in organic reactions
=> Electron displacement effects in co-valent bonds
=> Different types of organic reactions
=> Functional Group inter conversion
=> Choose the best answer: Basic concepts of organic reactions
=> Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Basic concepts of organic reactions

Chapter 13 Hydrocarbons


=> Hydrocarbons: Introduction
=> Alkanes
=> Nomenclature and isomerism of Alkanes
=> Preparation of alkanes
=> Physical Properties of Alkanes
=> Conformations of alkane(ethane)
=> Chemical properties of Alkanes
=> Alkenes
=> Nomenclature and Isomerism of Alkenes
=> General methods of preparation of alkenes
=> Physical properities of alkenes
=> Chemical properties of alkenes
=> Uses of Alkenes
=> Alkynes
=> Nomencluture of alkynes
=> General Methods of Preparation of Alkynes
=> Physical and Chemical properities of alkynes
=> Uses of Alkynes
=> Aromatic Hydrocarbons
=> Nomenclature and Isomerism of Aromatic Hydrocarbons
=> Aromaticity
=> Structure of benzene
=> Preparation of benzene
=> Physical Properties of Benzene
=> Chemical Properties of Benzene
=> Directive influence of a functional group in monosubtituted benzene
=> Carcinogenity and toxicity - Benzene
=> Choose the best answer: Chemistry:Hydrocarbons
=> Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Hydrocarbons

Chapter 14 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes


=> Haloalkanes and Haloarenes: Introduction
=> Classification of organic halogen compounds
=> Haloalkanes
=> Nomenclature of Haloalkanes
=> Nature of C – X bond in haloalkane
=> Methods of preparation of Haloalkanes
=> Physical Properties of Haloalkanes
=> Chemical properties of Haloalkanes
=> Uses of haloalkane
=> Organo metallic Compounds
=> Preparation of Organo metallic Compounds
=> Uses of Grignard reagent
=> Haloarenes
=> Nomenclature of haloarenes
=> Nature of C- X bond in haloarenes
=> Methods of preparation of Haloarenes
=> Physical properties of Haloarenes
=> Chemical properties of Haloarenes
=> Uses of Chloro benzene
=> Poly halogen compounds
=> Methylene chloride (Di chloromethane)
=> Chloroform - Trihaloalkane
=> Carbon tetrachloride - Tetra haloalkane
=> Freons (CFC)
=> DDT (p,p’-dichloro diphenyl tri-chloro ethane)
=> Summary - Chemistry: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
=> Choose the best answer: Chemistry: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
=> Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Chapter 15 Environmental Chemistry


=> Environmental Chemistry
=> Environmental Pollution
=> Atmospheric Pollution
=> Types of environmental pollution
=> Air pollution
=> Types of air pollutants
=> Particulate matter (Particulate pollutants)
=> Smog - Air pollution
=> Stratospheric pollution
=> Water Pollution
=> Causes of water pollution
=> Quality of drinking water
=> Soil Pollution
=> Sources of soil pollution
=> Strategies to control environmental pollution
=> Green Chemistry
=> Summary - Environmental Chemistry
=> Choose the best answer: Environmental Chemistry
=> Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Environmental Chemistry

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