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Chemistry 11th std

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Chemistry  11th std

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Chemistry 11th std - Start Reading Online

-:- Chemistry - the Centre of Life
-:- Classification of Matter
-:- Atomic Masses
-:- Molecular Mass
-:- Mole Concept
-:- Avogadro Number
-:- Molar Mass
-:- Molar Volume
-:- Gram Equivalent Concept
-:- Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula
-:- Determination of Empirical Formula from Elemental Analysis Data
-:- Calculation of Molecular Formula from Empirical Formula
-:- Stoichiometry
-:- Stoichiometric Calculations
-:- Limiting Reagents
-:- Redox Reactions
-:- Oxidation Number
-:- Types of Redox Reactions
-:- Balancing (the Equation) of Redox Reactions
-:- Summary - Chemistry: Basic Concepts of Chemistry and Chemical Calculations
-:- Evaluate Yourself: Basic Concepts of Chemistry and Chemical Calculations
-:- Choose the best answer: Basic Concepts of Chemistry and Chemical Calculations
-:- Brief questions and answers: Basic Concepts of Chemistry and Chemical Calculations
-:- Solved Example Problems: Basic Concepts of Chemistry and Chemical Calculations
-:- Introduction to atom models
-:- Bohr atom model
-:- Limitation of Bohr's atom model
-:- Wave particle duality of matter
-:- Quantisation of angular momentum and de Broglie concept
-:- Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
-:- Quantum mechanical model of atom - Schrodinger Equation
-:- Main features of the quantum mechanical model of atom
-:- Quantum numbers
-:- Shapes of atomic orbitals
-:- Energies of orbitals
-:- Filling of orbitals
-:- Aufbau principle
-:- Pauli Exclusion Principle
-:- Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity
-:- Electronic configuration of atoms
-:- Stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals
-:- Summary: Chemistry: Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom
-:- Evaluate Yourself: Chemistry: Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom
-:- Choose the best answer: Chemistry: Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom
-:- Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom
-:- Solved Example Problems: Chemistry: Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom
-:- Periodic Classification of Elements
-:- Classification of Elements
-:- Mendeleev's Classification
-:- Anomalies of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table
-:- Moseley's Work and Modern Periodic Law
-:- Modern Periodic Table
-:- Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Number Greater than 100
-:- Grouping of Elements based on Electronic Configurations
-:- Periodic Trends in Properties
-:- Atomic radius
-:- Ionic radius
-:- Ionisation enthalpy or Ionisation Energy
-:- Electron gain enthalpy (Electron Affinity)
-:- Electronegativity
-:- Periodic Trends in Chemical Properties
-:- Anomalous properties of second period elements
-:- Periodic Trends and Chemical Reactivity
-:- Summary: Chemistry Periodic Classification of Elements
-:- Evaluate Yourself: Chemistry Periodic Classification of Elements
-:- Choose the best Answer: Chemistry Periodic Classification of Elements
-:- Brief Questions and Answers: Chemistry Periodic Classification of Elements
-:- Hydrogen
-:- Position in Periodic Table
-:- Isotopes of Hydrogen
-:- Ortho- and Para-Hydrogen
-:- Preparation of Hydrogen
-:- Properties of Hydrogen
-:- Uses of Hydrogen
-:- Water - Compounds of Hydrogen
-:- Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
-:- Hard and Soft Water
-:- Heavy Water
-:- Chemical properties and Uses of heavy water
-:- Hydrogen Peroxide
-:- Physical and Chemical properties of Hydrogen Peroxide
-:- Uses of hydrogen peroxide
-:- Structure of hydrogen peroxide
-:- Hydrides
-:- Hydrogen Bonding
-:- Summary: Chemistry: Hydrogen
-:- Choose the best Answer: Hydrogen (Chemistry)
-:- Brief Questions: Hydrogen (Chemistry)
-:- s-Block Elements
-:- Alkali metals
-:- General characteristics of alkali metals
-:- Distinctive behavior of lithium
-:- Chemical properties of alkali metals
-:- Uses of alkali metals
-:- General characteristics of the compounds of alkali metals
-:- Important compounds of alkali metals
-:- Sodium Carbonate (Washing soda): Properties and uses
-:- Sodium chloride NaCl (Cooking salt or Table salt)
-:- Sodium hydroxide
-:- Sodium bicarbonate (Backing soda)
-:- Biological importance of sodium and potassium
-:- Alkaline earth metals
-:- General characteristics of alkaline earth metals
-:- Distinctive behavior of beryllium
-:- Chemical properties of alkaline earth metals
-:- Uses of alkaline earth metals
-:- General characteristics of the compounds of the alkaline earth metals
-:- Important compounds of calcium
-:- Quick lime, CaO: Preparation, Properties, Uses
-:- Calcium hydroxide: Preparation, Properties, Uses
-:- Gypsum: Preparation, Properties, Uses
-:- Calcium Sulphate (Plaster of Paris): Preparation, Properties, Uses
-:- Biological importance of magnesium and calcium
-:- Summary: Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals (Chemistry)
-:- Choose the best Answer: Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals (Chemistry)
-:- Brief Questions: Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals (Chemistry)
-:- Gaseous State
-:- The Gas Laws
-:- Boyle’s Law: Pressure-Volume Relationship
-:- Charles Law (Volume-temperature relationship)
-:- Gay-Lussac’s Law (Pressure-temperature relationship)
-:- Avogadro’s Hypothesis
-:- Ideal gas equation
-:- Mixture of gases - Dalton’s law of partial pressures
-:- Application of Dalton’s law
-:- Graham’ s Law of Diffusion
-:- Solved Example Problems: Dalton’s law of partial pressures
-:- Deviation from ideal gas behaviour
-:- Compressibility factor Z
-:- Compressibility factor for real gases
-:- Van der Waals Equation
-:- Pressure-Volume isotherms of Carbon dioxide
-:- Derivation of critical constants from van der Waals constant
-:- Liquefaction of gases
-:- Summary: Gaseous State (Chemistry)
-:- Evaluate Yourself: Gaseous State (Chemistry)
-:- Choose the best Answer: Gaseous State (Chemistry)
-:- Brief Questions and Answers: Gaseous State (Chemistry)
-:- Solved Example Problems: Gaseous State (Chemistry)
-:- Thermodynamics
-:- Thermodynamics System and Surrounding
-:- Types of Thermodynamic systems
-:- Properties of the Thermodynamics System
-:- Thermodynamic processes and its Types
-:- Thermodynamics State functions, path functions
-:- Internal Energy (U): Importance, Characteristics of Internal Energy
-:- Thermodynamics: Heat(q) and Work(w)
-:- Work involved in expansion and compression processes
-:- Zeroth law of thermodynamics
-:- First Law of Thermodynamics
-:- Mathematical statement of the first law
-:- Solved Example Problem: First Law of Thermodynamics
-:- Enthalpy (H)
-:- Relation between enthalpy 'H' and internal energy 'U'
-:- Enthalpy Changes for Different Types of Reactions and Phase Transitions
-:- Thermochemical Equations
-:- Solved Example Problem: Thermochemical Equations
-:- Measurement of ΔU and ΔH using Calorimetry
-:- Measurement of ΔU using bomb calorimeter
-:- Measurement of ΔH using coffee cup calorimeter
-:- Applications of the heat of combustion
-:- Hess’s law of constant heat Summation
-:- Lattice energy
-:- Born - Haber cycle for determining the lattice enthalpy of NaCl
-:- Second Law of thermodynamics
-:- Need for the second law of thermodynamics
-:- Various statements of the second law of thermodynamics
-:- Solved Example Problem: Second Law of thermodynamics
-:- Gibbs free energy (G)
-:- Criteria for spontaneity of a process
-:- Relationship between standard free energy change (ΔG0) and equilibrium constant (Keq)
-:- Solved Example Problems: Gibbs free energy (G)
-:- Third law of Thermodynamics
-:- Summary: Thermodynamics(Chemistry)
-:- Evaluate Yourself: Thermodynamics(Chemistry)
-:- Choose the best answer: Thermodynamics
-:- Brief Questions and Answers: Thermodynamics
-:- Solved Example Problem: Thermodynamics(Chemistry)
-:- List of Fundamental constants in Chemistry
-:- List of Critical constants of selected gases
-:- List of Van der waals constants for select gases
-:- List of Molar heat capacities of select compounds
-:- List of Thermodynamic data for select compounds
-:- Physical and chemical equilibrium
-:- Physical equilibrium
-:- Equilibrium involving dissolution of solids or gases in liquids
-:- Chemical Equilibrium
-:- Dynamic nature of equilibrium
-:- Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria
-:- Law of mass action
-:- Equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc)
-:- Relation between Kp and Kc
-:- Equilibrium constants for heterogeneous equilibrium
-:- Application of equilibrium constant
-:- Le-Chatelier's Principle
-:- Van't Hoff Equation
-:- How does oxygen exchanges between maternal and fetal blood in a pregnant women?
-:- Summary - Chemistry: Physical and Chemical Equilibrium
-:- Evaluate Yourself - Chemistry: Physical and Chemical Equilibrium
-:- Choose the best answer: Chemistry: Physical and Chemical Equilibrium
-:- Brief questions and answers: Physical and Chemical Equilibrium
-:- Solved Example Problems: Physical and Chemical Equilibrium
-:- Solutions: Introduction
-:- Types of solutions
-:- Expressing concentration of solutions
-:- Solubility of the solutes
-:- Factors influencing the solubility of the solutes
-:- Henry's law
-:- Limitations of Henry’s law
-:- Why deep-sea divers use air diluted with helium gas in their air tanks?
-:- Vapour pressure of liquid
-:- Vapour pressure of liquid solutions
-:- Vapour pressure of binary solution of liquid in liquids
-:- Vapour pressure of binary solution of solids in liquids
-:- Ideal and non-ideal solutions
-:- Factors responsible for deviation of solution from Raoult’s law
-:- Colligative properties
-:- Determination of molar mass weights from relative lowering of vapour pressure
-:- Elevation of boiling point
-:- Determination of molar mass of solute from depression in freezing point
-:- Osmosis and osmotic pressure
-:- Determination of molar mass from osmotic pressure
-:- Significances of osmotic pressure over other colligative properties
-:- Isotonic solutions
-:- Reverse osmosis (RO)
-:- Abnormal molar mass
-:- Summary - Chemistry: Solutions
-:- Evaluate Yourself: Chemistry: Solutions
-:- Choose the best answer: Chemistry: Solutions
-:- Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Solutions
-:- Solved Example Problems: Chemistry: Solutions
-:- Chemical bonding: Introduction
-:- Kossel - Lewis approach to chemical bonding
-:- Types of chemical bonds
-:- Covalent bonds
-:- Representing a covalent bond - Lewis structure (Lewis dot structure)
-:- Lewis structure for carbon dioxide
-:- Lewis structures for exceptions to octet rule
-:- Ionic or electrovalent bond
-:- Coordinate covalent bond
-:- Bond parameters
-:- Bond length
-:- Bond order
-:- Bond angle
-:- Bond enthalpy
-:- Resonance - Chemical bonding
-:- Polarity of Bonds
-:- Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory
-:- Valence Bond Theory
-:- Orbital Overlap
-:- Formation of hydrogen Molecule
-:- Types of hybridisation and geometry of molecules
-:- Molecular orbital theory
-:- Salient features of Molecular orbital theory
-:- Linear combination of atomic orbitals
-:- Bonding in some Homonuclear di-atomic molecules
-:- Metallic bonding
-:- Summary - Chemistry: Chemical bonding
-:- Choose the best answer: Chemistry: Chemical bonding
-:- Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Chemical bonding
-:- Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry
-:- Characteristics of organic compounds
-:- Classification of organic compounds
-:- Nomenclature of organic compounds
-:- IUPAC rules for nomenclature of organic compounds
-:- Nomenclature of Aromatic Compound
-:- Structural representation of organic compounds
-:- Isomerism in organic compounds and its types
-:- Constitutional isomers (Formerly structural isomers) and its types
-:- Stereoisomerism
-:- Geometrical isomerism
-:- Optical Isomerism
-:- Detection of elements(carbon and hydrogen) in organic compounds
-:- Estimation of carbon and hydrogen
-:- Estimation of sulphur
-:- Estimation of halogens
-:- Estimation of phosphorus
-:- Estimation of nitrogen
-:- Dumas method - Estimation of nitrogen
-:- Kjeldahls method - Estimation of nitrogen
-:- Purification of organic compounds
-:- Crystallization - Purification of organic compounds
-:- Chromatography - Purification of organic compounds
-:- Choose the best answer: Chemistry: Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry
-:- Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry
-:- Evaluate Yourself: Chemistry: Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry
-:- Solved Example Problems: Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry
-:- Basic concepts of organic reactions
-:- Fission of a covalent bond
-:- Nucleophiles and elctrophiles
-:- Electron movement in organic reactions
-:- Electron displacement effects in co-valent bonds
-:- Different types of organic reactions
-:- Functional Group inter conversion
-:- Choose the best answer: Basic concepts of organic reactions
-:- Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Basic concepts of organic reactions
-:- Hydrocarbons: Introduction
-:- Alkanes
-:- Nomenclature and isomerism of Alkanes
-:- Preparation of alkanes
-:- Physical Properties of Alkanes
-:- Conformations of alkane(ethane)
-:- Chemical properties of Alkanes
-:- Alkenes
-:- Nomenclature and Isomerism of Alkenes
-:- General methods of preparation of alkenes
-:- Physical properities of alkenes
-:- Chemical properties of alkenes
-:- Uses of Alkenes
-:- Alkynes
-:- Nomencluture of alkynes
-:- General Methods of Preparation of Alkynes
-:- Physical and Chemical properities of alkynes
-:- Uses of Alkynes
-:- Aromatic Hydrocarbons
-:- Nomenclature and Isomerism of Aromatic Hydrocarbons
-:- Aromaticity
-:- Structure of benzene
-:- Preparation of benzene
-:- Physical Properties of Benzene
-:- Chemical Properties of Benzene
-:- Directive influence of a functional group in monosubtituted benzene
-:- Carcinogenity and toxicity - Benzene
-:- Choose the best answer: Chemistry:Hydrocarbons
-:- Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Hydrocarbons
-:- Haloalkanes and Haloarenes: Introduction
-:- Classification of organic halogen compounds
-:- Haloalkanes
-:- Nomenclature of Haloalkanes
-:- Nature of C – X bond in haloalkane
-:- Methods of preparation of Haloalkanes
-:- Physical Properties of Haloalkanes
-:- Chemical properties of Haloalkanes
-:- Uses of haloalkane
-:- Organo metallic Compounds
-:- Preparation of Organo metallic Compounds
-:- Uses of Grignard reagent
-:- Haloarenes
-:- Nomenclature of haloarenes
-:- Nature of C- X bond in haloarenes
-:- Methods of preparation of Haloarenes
-:- Physical properties of Haloarenes
-:- Chemical properties of Haloarenes
-:- Uses of Chloro benzene
-:- Poly halogen compounds
-:- Methylene chloride (Di chloromethane)
-:- Chloroform - Trihaloalkane
-:- Carbon tetrachloride - Tetra haloalkane
-:- Freons (CFC)
-:- DDT (p,p’-dichloro diphenyl tri-chloro ethane)
-:- Summary - Chemistry: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
-:- Choose the best answer: Chemistry: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
-:- Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
-:- Environmental Chemistry
-:- Environmental Pollution
-:- Atmospheric Pollution
-:- Types of environmental pollution
-:- Air pollution
-:- Types of air pollutants
-:- Particulate matter (Particulate pollutants)
-:- Smog - Air pollution
-:- Stratospheric pollution
-:- Water Pollution
-:- Causes of water pollution
-:- Quality of drinking water
-:- Soil Pollution
-:- Sources of soil pollution
-:- Strategies to control environmental pollution
-:- Green Chemistry
-:- Summary - Environmental Chemistry
-:- Choose the best answer: Environmental Chemistry
-:- Brief questions and answers: Chemistry: Environmental Chemistry