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# Ideal and non-ideal solutions

An ideal solution is a solution in which each component i.e. the solute as well as the solvent obeys the Raoult’s law over the entire range of concentration.

Ideal and non-ideal solutions

## Ideal Solutions:

An ideal solution is a solution in which each component i.e. the solute as well as the solvent obeys the Raoult’s law over the entire range of concentration. Practically no solution is ideal over the entire range of concentration. However, when the concentration of solute is very low, the dilute solution behaves ideally. If the two components present in the solution (A and B) are identical in size, structure, and having almost similar intermolecular attractive forces between them (i.e. between A-A, B-B and B-A) and then the solution tends to behave like an ideal solution.

## For an ideal solution

i) there is no change in the volume on mixing the two components (solute & solvents). (ΔVmixing= 0)

ii) there is no exchange of heat when the solute is dissolved in solvent (ΔHmixing = 0).

iii) escaping tendency of the solute and the solvent present in it should be same as in pure liquids.

Examples  for  ideal  solutions:  benzene & toluene; n-hexane & n-heptane; ethyl bromide &ethyl iodide; chlorobenzene & bromobenzene.

## Non-ideal solutions

The solutions which do not obey Raoult’s law over the entire range of concentration, are called non-ideal solutions. For a non-ideal solution, there is a change in the volume and enthalpy upon mixing. i.e. ΔHmixing ≠ 0 & ΔVmixing ≠ 0. The deviation of the non-ideal solutions from the Raoult’s law can either be positive or negative.

## Non-ideal solutions - positive deviation from Rauolt's Law:

The nature of the deviation from the Rauolt’s law can be explained in terms of the intermolecular interactions between solute (A)  and solvent (B). Consider a case in which the intermolecular attractive forces between A and B are weaker than those between the molecules of A (A-A) and molecules of B (B-B). The molecules present in such a solution have a greater tendency to escape from the solution when compared to the ideal solution formed by A and B, in which the intermolecular attractive forces (A-A, B-B, A-B) are almost similar. Consequently, the vapour pressure of such non-ideal solution increases and it is greater than the sum of the vapour pressure of A and B as predicted by the Raoult’s law. This type of deviation is called positive deviation.

Here, pA > p°A xA and pB > p°B xB

Hence ptotal > p°A xA + p°B xB (9.19)

Let us understand the positive deviation by considering a solution of ethyl alcohol and water. In this solution the hydrogen bonding interaction between ethanol and water is weaker than those hydrogen bonding interactions amongst themselves (ethyl alcohol-ethyl alcohol and water-water interactions). This results in the increased evaporation of both components from the aqueous solution of ethanol. Consequently, the vapour pressure of the solution is greater than the vapour pressure predicted by Raoult’s law. Here, the mixing process is endothermic i.e. ΔHmixing> 0 and there will be a slight increase in volume (ΔVmixing> 0).

Examples for non-ideal solutions showing positive deviations: Ethyl alcohol & cyclohexane, Benzene & acetone, Carbon tetrachloride & chloroform, Acetone & ethyl alcohol, Ethyl alcohol & water. ## Non-ideal solutions - negative deviation from Rauolt's Law:

Let us consider a case where the attractive forces between solute (A) and solvent (B) are stronger than the intermolecular attractive forces between the individual components (A-A & B-B). Here, the escaping tendency of A and B will be lower when compared with an ideal solution formed by A and B. Hence, the vapour pressure of such solutions will be lower than the sum of the vapour pressure of A and B. This type of deviation is called negative deviation.

For the negative deviation pA < p°A xA and pB < p°B xB

Let us consider a solution of phenol and aniline. Both phenol and aniline form hydrogen bonding interactions amongst themselves. However, when mixed with aniline, the phenol molecule forms hydrogen bonding interactions with aniline, which are stronger than the hydrogen bonds formed amongst themselves. Formation of new hydrogen bonds considerably reduce the escaping tendency of phenol and aniline from the solution. As a result, the vapour pressure of the solution is less and there is a slight decrease in volume (ΔVmixing< 0) on mixing. During this process evolution of heat takes place i.e. ΔHmixing< 0 (exothermic)

Examples for non-ideal solutions showing negative deviation: Acetone + chloroform, Chloroform + diethyl ether, Acetone + aniline,Chloroform + Benzene. ## Factors responsible for deviation from Raoult’s law

The deviation of solution from ideal behavior is attributed to the following factors.

### i) Solute-solvent interactions

For an ideal solution, the interaction between the solvent molecules (A-A),the solute molecules (B-B) and between the solvent & solute molecules (A-B) are expected to be similar. If these interactions are dissimilar, then there will be a deviation from ideal behavior.

### ii) Dissociation of solute

When a solute present in a solution dissociates to give its constituent ions, the resultant ions interact strongly with the solvent and cause deviation from Raoult’s law.

For example, a solution of potassium chloride in water deviates from ideal behavior because the solute dissociates to give K+ and Cl ion which form strong ion-dipole interaction with water molecules.

KCl (s) + H2O (l) → K+ (aq)+ Cl (aq)

### iii)Association of solute

Association of solute molecules can also cause deviation from ideal behaviour. For example, in solution, acetic acid exists as a dimer by forming intermolecular hydrogen bonds, and hence deviates from Raoult’s law. ### iv) Temperature

An increase in temperature of the solution increases the average kinetic energy of the molecules present in the solution which causes decrease in the attractive force between them. As result, the solution deviates from ideal behaviour.

### v) Pressure

At high pressure the molecules tend to stay close to each other and therefore there will be an increase in their intermolecular attraction. Thus, a solution deviates from Raoult’s law at high pressure.

### vi) Concentration

If a solution is sufficiently dilute there is no pronounced solvent-solute interaction because the number of solute molecules are very low compared to the solvent. When the concentration is increased by adding solute, the solvent-solute interaction becomes significant. This causes deviation from the Raoult’s law.

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11th Chemistry : UNIT 9 : Solutions : Ideal and non-ideal solutions |