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Chapter: 11th Chemistry : Environmental Chemistry

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Summary - Environmental Chemistry

Environmental chemistry plays a vital role in environment.

SUMMARY

 

Environmental chemistry plays a vital role in environment. Environmental chemistry means scientific study of chemical and bio chemical process occurring in environment. World Environmental Day is celebrated on fifth of June of every year.

 

Environmental Pollution:

Environmental pollution is the effect of undesirable changes in the surrounding that haveharmful effects on living things.

Pollutants are generally classified as rapidly degradable (e.g. discarded vegetables),slowly degradable(e.g. Agriculture waste) and non-bio degradable pollutants (e.g. DDT, plastic materials).

 

Atmospheric pollution

Atmospheric pollutions include tropospheric and stratospheric pollution. Troposphere and stratosphere greatly affect the biosphere of the earth due to which the study of pollutions in these regions is most important.

 

Tropospheric pollution:

Troposphere is the lowest region of atmosphere in which man, animal and plants exist. Gaseous pollutants like

SOx,NOx,CO,CO2,O3 hydrocarbons and particulate pollutants like dust, mist, fumes, smog cause pollutions in troposphere

 

Acid rain:

When the PH of rain water becomes lower than 5.6 it is called acid rain. Acid rain is a byproduct of various human activities that emit sulphuroxides and nitrogen oxides in atmosphere. It damages buildings, statues and other monuments..

The acid rain in water reservoir like rivers, ponds adversely affects microbes ,aquatic plants and fishes.

 

Greenhouse effect:

The process of warming up of earth is known as greenhouse effect or global warming. CO2, CH4, O3, CFC, N2 and water vapour present in atmosphere act as a greenhouse gases. Heat retaining capacity of greenhouse gases are called Global Warming Potential (GWP).The GWP based sequence of greenhouse gases is as CFC>N2O>CH4>CO2.

 

Stratospheric pollution:

Stratosphere extends above troposphere up to 50Km above.

 

Depletion of ozone layer:

Ozone layer present in stratosphere protect the living species against harmful UV rays from space but Ozone Depletion Substance (ODS) used by humans deplete ozone layer. To create awareness in the Whole world, United Nations decided to celebrate 16th September of every year as “Ozone Layer Protection Day”.

 

Water pollution

Water is the elixir of life, but it is polluted by point and nonpoint sources.Institutions like World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) have prescribed standards for quality of drinking water.


Soil pollution

Lithosphere with humus cover is known as soil. The topsoil provides water and all nutrients required by plants for their growth. Industrial waste, artificial fertilisers and pesticides result in soil pollution.

 

Waste management

The strategies for controlling environmental pollution are called can be waste management.Waste management involves reduction and proper disposal of waste. Wastes are produced in three forms, solid, liquid and gase. Solid waste can be disposed by segregation, dumping, incineration and composting.

 

Green chemistry

Efforts to control environmental pollution resulted in development of science for synthesis of chemicals favorable to environment which is called green chemistry.Green chemistry means science of environmentally favorable chemical synthesis.

 

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