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Chapter: 11th Chemistry : Environmental Chemistry

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Particulate matter (Particulate pollutants)

Particulate pollutants are small solid particles and liquid droplets suspended in air.

Particulate matter (Particulate pollutants)

 

Particulate pollutants are small solid particles and liquid droplets suspended in air. Many of particulate pollutants are hazardous. Examples: dust, pollen, smoke, soot and liquid droplets (aerosols) etc,.

They are blown into the atmosphere by volcanic eruption, blowing of dust, incomplete combustion of fossil fuels induces soot. Combustion of high ash fossil fuels creates fly ash and finishing of metals throws metallic particles into the atmosphere.

 

1. Types of Particulates:

Particulate in the atmosphere may be of two types, viable or non-viable.

 

a. Viable particulates

The viable particulates are the small size living organisms such as bacteria, fungi, moulds, algae, etc. which are dispersed in air. Some of the fungi cause allergy in human beings and diseases in plants.

 

b. Non-viable particulates

The non- viable particulates are small solid particles and liquid droplets suspended in air. They help in the transportation of viable particles. There are four types of non-viable particulates in the atmosphere. They are classified according to their nature and size as follows

 

(i) Smoke

Smoke particulate consists of solid particles (or) mixture of solid and liquid particles formed by combustion of organic matter.

For example, cigarette smoke, oil smoke, smokes from burning of fossil fuel, garbage and dry leaves.

 

(ii) Dust:

Dust composed of fine solid particles produced during crushing and grinding of solid materials.

For example, sand from sand blasting, saw dust from wood works, cement dust from cement factories and fly ash from power generating units.

 

(iii) Mists

They are formed by particles of spray liquids and condensation of vapours in air.

For example, sulphuric acid mist, herbicides and insecticides sprays can form mists.

 

(iv) Fumes

Fumes are obtained by condensation of vapours released during sublimation, distillation, boiling and calcination and by several other chemical reactions.

For example, organic solvents, metals and metallic oxides form fume particles.

 

2. Health effects of particulate pollutants:

 

i. Dust, mist, fumes,etc., are air borne particles which are dangerous for human health. Particulate pollutants bigger than 5 microns are likely to settle in the nasal passage whereas particles of about 10 micron enters the lungs easily and causes scaring or fibrosis of lung lining. They irritate the lungs and causes cancer and asthma. This disease is also called pneumoconiosis. Coal miners may suffer from black lung disease. Textile workers may suffer from white lung disease.

ii. Lead particulates affect children’s brain, interferes maturation of RBCs and even cause cancer.

iii. Particulates in the atmosphere reduce visibility by scattering and absorption of sunlight. It is dangerous for aircraft and motor vehicles

iv. Particulates provide nuclei for cloud formation and increase fog and rain.

v. Particulates deposit on plant leaves and hinder the intake of CO2 from the air and affect photosynthesis.

 

3. Techniques to reduce particulate pollutants

 

The particulates from air can be removed by using electrostatic precipitators, gravity settling chambers, and wet scrubbers or by cyclone collectors. These techniques are based on washing away or settling of the particulates.

 

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