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Distinctive behavior of lithium
The distinctive behaviour of Li+ ion is due to its exceptionally small size, high polarising power, high hydration energy and non availability of d-orbitals.
Similarity between the first member of group 1 (Li) and the diagonally placed second element of group 2 (Mg) is called diagonal relationship. It is due to similar size (r Li+ = 0.766 Å and Mg2+ = 0.72 Å) and comparable electronegativity values (Li = 1.0; Mg = 1.2).
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