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Chapter: 11th Chemistry : Gaseous State

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Liquefaction of gases

For important commercial operations such as LPG and rocket fuels, we require gases in their liquid state.

Liquefaction of gases

For important commercial operations such as LPG and rocket fuels, we require gases in their liquid state. The liquefication methods are based on the Joule-Thomson effect. He observed appreciable cooling when the compressed gas is forced through an orifice plug into low-pressure region. This phenomenon of lowering of temperature when a gas is made to expand adiabatically from a region of high pressure into a region of low pressure is known as Joule-Thomson effect. This effect is observed only below a certain temperature, which is a characteristic one for each gas. This temperature below which a gas obeys Joule-Thomson effect is called inversion temperature (Ti). This value is given using van der waals constants a and b.


Gases like O2, He, N2 and H2 have very low Tc, hence Joule-Thomson effect can be applied for cooling effectively. At the inversion temperature, no rise or fall in temperature of a gas occurs while expanding. But above the inversion temperature, the gas gets heated up when allowed to expand through a hole.

 

There are different methods used for liquefaction of gases:

 

1. In Linde’s method, Joule-Thomson effect is used to get liquid air or any other gas.

 

2. In Claude’s process, the gas is allowed to perform mechanical work in addition to Joule-Thomson effect so that more cooling is produced.

 

3. In Adiabatic process, cooling is produced by removing the magnetic property of magnetic material such as gadolinium sulphate. By this method, a temperature of 10-4 K i.e. as low as 0 K can be achieved.


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